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Wound and Skin
Organisms are only spread through direct contact with the infected site. Gloves and gowns need to be worn only by persons having contact with the infected site.
Ex: Decubitus ulcers, gangrene, herpes, surgical wounds.
The modes of transmission are respiratory tract to respiratory tract; and contact with the respiratory secretions.
Ex: Tuberculosis, whooping cough.
The transmission of disease is spread by the fecal-oral route, and primarily occurs by contamination of hands from the patients excretions or from objects that are contaminated with excreations. In this instance, gowns and gloves must be worn by the persons having direct contact with excretions
Ex:Salmonella, shigella, parasitic infections, dysentery, campylobacter
Strict ( Complete )
This isolation is required for all patients with contagious diseases. All persons entering the patient's room must wear a gown, gloves, and a mask.
Ex: rabies, smallpox, plague, diptheria, streptococcal or staphylococcal pneumonia
Protective ( Reverse)
Bacteria and infection are not a threat to the persons in direct contact with the patient, but to the patient. These patients need to be protected from the external enviroment. therefore, all persons entering the room must wear a gown, gloves and a mask. Always use clean equipment for obtaining the specimen.
Ex: burn patients, immunodeficiencies.
The modes of transmission are: fecal-oral;parenteral inoculation; and serum-oral. All persons collecting blood specimens MUST wear a gown, gloves and be extrewmeley careful in collection technique.
EX: Hepatitis B, AIDS, histoplasmosis, Creutzfeldt- Jacob disease
The microorganisms causing these infections will be found in the secretions of the patient. Objects that come in contact with these discharges also become contaminated. handwashing is the only precaution necessary when performing venipunctures or skin punctures on these patients.
Double Bagging of Specimens
All specimens returning to the laboratory such as tubes and slides must be placed in two bags and secured. Specimens that require double-bagging include any patient whose blood could cause possible contamination to the technologist handling the specimen. Therefore, patients in strict or blood and body fluids precautions MUST be double bagged.
The center for disease control is now recommending the use of universal blood and body fluid protections when caring for ALL patients. This will minimize the risk of exposure of transmission of HIV infection and other bloodborne pathogens. the use of universal precautions does not negate the need at this time for all other isolation categories as identified in the centers for disease control guidelines for isolation precautions in hospitals.
Therefore, gloves should be worn when performing venipunctures and other vascular access procedures on all inpatients and outpatients.