Chapter 19-The Kidney

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Anonymous
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270378
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Chapter 19-The Kidney
Updated:
2014-04-12 21:21:57
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Chapter 19 Kidney
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Chapter 19 The Kidney
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  1. Functions of Kidney
    • • Kidneys maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
    • • Kidney function can be broken down into six general areas
    • 1. Regulation of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure
    • 2. Regulation of osmolarity
    • 3. Maintenance of ion balance
    • 4. Homeostatic regulation of pH
    • 5. Excretion of wastes
    • 6. Production of hormones
  2. What are the gross structures of the urinary system?
    • 1. Kidney
    • 2. Ureter
    • 3. Urinary bladder
    • 4. Urethra
    • • These structures are located in the abdominal cavity
  3. How is the kidney constructed?
    • • Interior of kidney is organized into two layers
    • 1. Cortex is outer layer
    • 2. Medulla is inner
    • layer
    • • Nephron is the functional unit
    • • 80% nephrons are located mostly in the cortex (cortical nephron)
    • • 20% have most of their structure in the
    • medulla (juxtamedullary neuron)
    • • Vascular organization
    • is important to
    • function of nephron
    • – Renal arteries takes blood to the cortex
    • – Renal vein collects blood filtered by the kidney
  4. Supply of blood in the nephron
    • • An afferent arteriole carries blood from an
    • artery to:
    • – capillaries that supply the nephron
    • – each capillary is folded into a ball called a glomerulus
  5. Supply of blood in the cortex
    • A glomerulus continues as an efferent arteriole
  6. Supply of blood in the nephron
    • • A glomerulus is situated inside Bowman’s Capsule of a nephron
    • • Blood flows from efferent arteriole into branching capillaries called peritubular capillaries.
    • • Blood from the peritubular capillaries
    • eventually collects in a venule
  7. Structure of the nephron
    • • The nephron consists
    • of a folded tube
    • • At one end of the
    • tube is the renal
    • corpuscle consisting
    • of
    • 1. Glomerulus
    • 2. Bowman’s capsule
    • • Fluid flows out of glomerulus into Bowman’s capsule
    • • From Bowman’s capsule fluid flows into proximal tubule
    • • Then fluid flows through the loop of Henle consisting of:
    • 1. Descending limb
    • 2. Ascending limb
    • • Fluid in Ascending Limb flows into distal tubule
    • • Then the fluid joins fluid from other nephrons flowing through the collecting duct
    • • The distal tubule and the collecting duct
    • comprise the distal nephron

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