test 7a aemt

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test 7a aemt
2014-04-13 21:28:01
test 7a aemt

test 7a aemt
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  1. most stressful unit
  2. which vertebrae allows for the most cervicle flexion?
  3. things to consider with fall pt
    • fall height
    • body part that received initial force
    • surface falling onto
  4. significant mechanism of injury
    • -ejection from vehicle
    • -death of someone in the same vehicle
    • - rollover MVC
    • -High speed collision, defined as greater tatn 40 mph
    • -falls from greater than 20 feet (10 feet for pediatric patients)
    • -Motorcycle and rider separation
    • -penetrating trauma to the head, neck, torso, or proximal extremity
    • -significant blunt trauma to the head, neck, or torso
  5. GCS for eyes
    • 4 open eyes spontaneously
    • 3 open eyes in response to voice or in response to pain
    • 2 stimuli
    • 1 none
  6. Verbal GCS
    • 5 Oriented, converses normally
    • 4 confused, disoriented
    • 3 speaks inappropriate words
    • 2 incomprehensible sounds
    • 1 none
  7. GCS Motor
    • 6 Obeys commands
    • 5 localized painful stimuli
    • 4 withdraws from pain
    • 3 abnormal flexion to painful stimuli
    • 2 extension to painful stimuli
    • 1 none
  8. Duramater
    outer menigeal layer
  9. pia mater
    inner meningeal layer
  10. Arachnoid space
    space between duramater and pia mater with a spider web appearance
  11. controls all fine thinking
  12. controls all gross motor movement
  13. controls vital functions
    The brainstem
  14. regulates endocrine and autonomic nervous system functions, located above brain stem
  15. controls involuntary somatic and visceral motor centers, and relays info between cerebellum and brain stem
  16. respiratory, cardiac, vasomotor center
  17. neck Zone 1
    below cricoid ring, carry highest mortality due to great vessel and tracheal involvement 
  18. Neck Zone 2
    more common and involve carotid arteries and larynx 
  19. Neck Zone 3
    can be hidden from view
  20. neck structures Vessels
    Carotid bodies and Jugular Veins 
  21. neck structures Airway
    trachea and larynx 
  22. Other neck structures
    Cervical spine and esophagus
  23. bones of face need to know
    Zygoma, Maxilla, Mandible, and Nasal Bones
  24. Filled with a gelatinous fluid called vitreous humor
    the eye
  25. the “whites” of the eye
  26. what does CFS do
    Allows for cushioning and “floats” the brain  Provides for the exchange of nutrients and waster products
  27. Frontal
    Personality 
  28. Parietal
    (Motor and Sensory Activities; Memory and Emotions)
  29. Occipital
  30. Temporal
    (Long-Term Memory, Hearing, Speech, Taste, Smell)
  31. Cerebral Contusion
    • Causes: blunt trauma to local tissue
    • S/S: prolonged confusion
    • Notes: common with blunt injury, frontal lobe most commonly injured
  32. Intracranial Hemorrhage
    • Causes: bleeding that can occur at several locations within the brain
    • S/S: dependent on area involved
    • Notes: often deteriorate during your care
  33. Epidural Hematoma
    • Causes: bleeding between the dura mater and the skull from a hih pressure vessel
    • S/S: patient will quickly move toward unresponsiveness
    • Notes: often the brain will be displaced and pushed toward the foramen magnum
  34. Subdural Hematoma
    • Causes: normally bleeding beneath the dura mater in the subarachnoid space
    • S/S: occurs very slowly and present with subtle changes
    • Notes: suspect in medical patients with neurological complaints who have recent history of trauma
  35. Intracerebral Hemorrhage
    • Causes: ruptured blood vessel within the brain S/S: present much like a stroke
    • Notes: blood loss in minimal but damaging due to irritation
  36. Concussion
    • Causes: blunt head trauma
    • S/S: transient confusion, disorientation, amnesia followed by rapid return to normal Notes: lucid interval – occurs when multiple injuries occurs, ex. Concussion and epidural hematoma
  37. Moderate DAI
    • Causes: bruising of brain tissue occurs, and commonly associated with basilar skull fx S/S: immediate unconsciousness, followed by persistent confusion, disorientation, and both types of amnesia
    • Notes: patients may also complain for headache, photophobia, and smell disturbances
  38. Severe DAI
    • Causes: significant damage to axons in both cerebral hemispheres and brainstem
    • S/S: unconscious, shows signs of ICP increase, and both kinds of posturing
    • Notes: many of these patients will not survive
  39. Upper Brainstem Displace can cause
    Vomiting, Changes in LOC, and Pupillary dilation 
  40. Lower Brainstem Displace 
    Disturbances in B/P, breathing, and HR
  41. Blunt trauma
    Pressure wave damages air filled structures
    Blast type
  42. Blunt  trauma 
    -Injuries to the chest wall, diaphragm, heart, or tracheal tree
    – Traumatic Asphyxia – Crush Syndrome and Rhabdo.
    crushing type
  43. blunt force trauma
    Like chest hitting steering wheel
    Chest wall stops, organs move
    Fixation points tear
    Paper bag syndrome
    Deceleration Type
  44. Shotgun Blasts
    • – Type 1 – greater than 21 feet
    • – Type 2 – between 9 and 21 ft
    • – Type 3 – less than 9 feet
  45. • Basically air in the pleural space – A.K.A closed pneumo.
    • Can be caused by rib fractures, paper bag syndrome, or penetrating trauma
    • S/S – Trauma to the chest, chest pain on inspiration, hyperinflation of the chest, diminished breath sounds
    Simple pneaumothorax
  46. • Usually caused by large exit wound
    • Sucking Chest wounds – 2/3 size of trachea
    • S/S – Penetrating chest trauma, sucking chest wound, frothy blood at wound site, dyspnea, hypovolemia
    Open Pneumothorax
    • Deformity
    • Contusion or crepitus
    • Abrasion
    • Penetrating trauma
    • Burns
    • Tenderness
    • Lacerations
    • Swelling
  48. deadly dozen chest trauma
    Primary Survey Detection and Treatment
    • • Airway Obstruction
    • • Open Pneumothorax
    • • Flail Chest
    • • Tension Pneumothorax
    • • Massive Hemothorax
    • • Cardiac Tamponade
  49. deadly dozen chest trauma
    Secondary Survey Detection and Treatment
    • • Myocardial Contusion
    • • Traumatic Aortic Rupture
    • • Tracheal/Bronchial Injury
    • • Diaphragmatic Tears
    • • Esophageal Injury
    • • Pulmonary Contusion