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What did Cavadino and Dignan state in 1997?
- Custodial sentencing occurs for 4 reasons:
How does custodial sentencing enable deterrence?
- An unpleasant experience (or the threat of one) prevents that behaviour in the future
- The punished individual is made to dwell upon their crime
- A message goes out to the population, deterring others
How does custodial sentencing enable incapacitation?
- The offender is removed from society and placed in prison, preventing further reoffending
- The most extreme form of incapacitation is capital punishment
- This is based on the notion that punishment is justifiable as it serves to reduce the likelihood of criminal behaviour being repeated in the future (recidivism)
How does custodial sentencing enable rehabilitation and reform?
- The experience of punishment leads to the offender becoming 'changed' and does not repeat the behaviour in the future
- Punishment should be based around attempting to rehabilitate the offender so that during a sentence they are treated in such a way that they undergo a change in character
How does custodial sentencing enable retribution?
- Society is enacting revenge for the crime by punishing the offender
- The punishment is designed to fit the crime and is considered proportionally to the severity of the crime
- Retribution advocates 'eye for an eye' mentality and stands in opposition to the intentions of the other forms of punishment that seek to reduce the likelihood of recidivism
What did Davies and Raymond find in 2000?
Custodial sentencing does not deter others but are rather used to appease the public for political reasons
What did Cullen and Minchin find in 2000?
After tracking prisoners released in 1996 they found that 57% had reoffended within 2 years demonstrating the 'revolving door syndrome'
What did Doherty find in 2001?
- Recidivism rates for burglary were as high as 77%
- Rates for those convicted of sex offences were only 18%
What could also explain Doherty's 2001 findings?
Sex offenders receive much harsher treatment in prisons
How might Prison be seen as a positive way of influencing inmates?
- It provides opportunities for training and skills needed to cope on the outside
- Many prisons, however lack the resources to provide these services
- Treatment also seems to only show short term benefits and long term effectiveness is limited
What did Topp find in 1974?
- Prison experience is very stressful and can have negative effects on mental health
- Suicide rates in prisons are 65 per 100,000
- This is much greater than the national average of 16 per 100,000
How does Prison cause symptoms such as anxiety and restlessness
Anxiety and restlessness are common at the beginning of sentences with the inmate trying to adapt to prison life and at the end with the inmate becoming anxious about adapting to life on the outside again
What did Heather find in 1977?
- 1/5 of prisoners sentenced to life showed psychotic symptoms
- This could be due to the effects of prison or, conversely the inmates could be sentenced to life as a result of their psychotic nature
What did Kruppa argue in 1991?
The perpetrators of serious crimes may experience PTSD showing symptoms such as flashbacks to the events of the crime
How might prison affect its inmates perception of the outside world?
- They may become institutionalised, becoming so accustomed to the norms and routines of prison life that they can no longer cope on the outside
- Zimbardo's experiment showed that, even in role-play, prisoners quickly adapted to their role as prisoner
How might prison intensify criminal behaviour?
- Prisonisation could take place
- This involves younger and less experienced criminals learning skills and behaviour from more seasoned offenders with whom they are interned
How might custodial sentencing make it difficult for an inmate to find a job on the outside?
Breakdown of family life and disruption of employment means released inmates often have few options other than crime
What did Glaser suggest in 1983?
- Supervision in the community is better for low risk offenders since prison reinforces criminal behaviour and removes many potential job opportunities
- Custodial sentencing, however has proved to be more effective in reducing recidivism rates of habitual criminals
What was the aim of the 1973 Zimbardo et al study?
To investigate the psychological effects of imprisonment
What methodology was employed in the 1973 Zimbardo et al study?
- P's were screened for emotional stability and antisocial behaviour
- Those fount to be stable were placed in a mock prison in the Stanford university basement
- Prisoners and guards were selected through coin toss and were given their own respective outfits to wear
- The inmates were interned in the mock prison for 2 weeks
What were the results of the 1973 Zimbardo et al study?
- A routine quickly developed with inmates becoming submissive an despondent, whereas the guards asserted their dominance through demeaning rituals
- Due to the myriad of unforeseen psychological issues that arose the study was terminated after just 6 days
What can be concluded from the 1973 Zimbardo et al study?
Prison experience can yield powerful negative psychological problems in inmates and guards alike
How can the 1773 Zimbardo et al study be evaluated?
- The results are difficult to generalise due to a number of factors:
- There are considerable individual differences in the way people adjust
- Few controlled longitudinal studies have been conducted
- Different prisons have different regimes so there would be a wide variation in effects
- Both the length of sentence and reason for incarceration are likely to have an effect on individual reactions
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