bio test 2

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  1. Cell types
    • fall into 4 basic tissue groups;
    • epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous
  2. simple squamous epithelium
    is a layer of flattened cells located in blood vessel walls and air sacs of the lungs and the function is diffusion
  3. stratified squamous epithelium
    • several layers of flattened cells; located on the skin or other surfaces subject to abrasion such as the mouth, esohphagus and vagina.
    • function is to protect against abrasion, typically not involved in secretion or absorption
  4. cuboidal epithelium
    • layer of cubelike cells; free surface may may have microvilli
    • common locations is glands and tubular parts of nephrons and kidneys
    • function is secretion and absorption
  5. Columnar Epithelium
    • Layer of tall slender cells
    • free surface may have microvilli
    • common location are the lining of the gut and the respiratory system
    • function is to secrete and absorb
  6. stem cells
    • important area of research due to the potential to develop into any tissue
    • are totipotent
    • can ve used for replacing damaged or dead tissue in the body with healthy cells
    • may possibly result in growing customized tissues and replacement organs
  7. loose connective tissue
    • Fibroblasts and other cells surrounded by collagen and elastin fibers forming a glycoprotein matrix
    • common location is under the skin and epithelia around blood vessels, nerves, and some internal organs
    • function is to support elasticity and diffusion
  8. Fibrous connective tissue
    • Long rows of fibroblasts surrounded by collagen and elastin fibers in parallel bundles with a dense ECM
    • Common location is in the Tendons and ligaments
    • Function is Strength and Elasticity
  9. Cartilage Tissue
    • Chondrocytes embedded in a pliable soft matrix of collagen and chondroitin sulfate
    • Common locations is ends of bones, ears, nose, parts of airways, skeleton of vertebrate embryos
    • function is the support, flexibility, low friction surface for joint movement
  10. Bone Tissue
    • Osteocytes in a matrix of collagen and glycoproteins hardened with Hydroxyapatite
    • Common locations is the bones of vertebrate skeleton
    • Function is movement, support, and protection
  11. Adipose Tissue
    • large tightly packed adipocytes with little ECM
    • Common locations is under skin and around the kidneys and heart
    • function is energy reserves, insulation, and padding
  12. Blood Tissue
    • Leukocytes, Erytrhocytes, and platelets suspended in plasma, a fluid ECM
    • common locations is in the circulatory system
    • Function is the Transportation of Substances
  13. Skeletal Muscle tissue
    • Bundles of long, cylindrical, strirated, contractile, multinucleate cells
    • typical location is attached to bones of skeleton
    • function is the locomotion and movement of body parts
  14. Cardiac muscle
    • Interlinked nework of short, branched, cylindrical strirated cells stabilized by anchoring junctions and gap junctions
    • location is in the wall of the heart
    • function is pumping of blood within the circulatory system
  15. Smooth muscle
    • loose network of contractile cells with tapered ends
    • typical location: wall of internal organs, such as the stomach
    • function is the movement of internal organs
  16. Nervous tissue
    • Contains neurons that serve as lines of communication and control between body parts
    • contains glial cells which support and provide nutrients to neurons, provide electrical insulation, and scavenge cellular debris and foreign matter
  17. plasma
    the fluid portion of blood
  18. homeostasis
    • is the maintenance of the internal environment in a relatively stable state
    • is a dynamic process in which internal adjustments are made continuously to compensate for external changes
  19. Nervous system
    • structures: the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and sensory organs
    • Main functions¬† is the principal regulatory system; monitors changes in internal and external environments and formulates compensatory responses; coordinates body activities
  20. Endocrine System
    • pituary, hypothalmus, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, and other hormone secreting glands
    • Main functions is regulating and coordinating body activiites through the secretion of hormones
  21. Muscular system
    • skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle
    • main function moves body parts; helps run bodily functions; generates heat, moves intestinal lumen contents
  22. skeletal system
    • bones, tendons, ligaments, cartilage
    • function: supports and protects body parts; provides leverage for body movements; stores minerals
  23. Integumentary system
    • skin, sweat glands, hair, and nails
    • function: covers external body surfaces and protects against injury and infection; helps regulate water content and body temperature
  24. circulatory system
    • heart, blood vessels, blood
    • Function: distributes water, nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and other substances throughout the bodyand carries away carbon dioxide and other metabolic wastes; helps stabilize internal temperature and Ph
  25. Lymphatic system
    • Lymph nodes, spleen, lymph ducts, thymus
    • function returns excess fluid to the blood; defends body against invading viruses; bacteria, fungi, and other pathogens as part of the immune system
  26. Respiratory system
    • lungs, diaphragm, trachea, and other airways
    • functions in the exchange of gasses with the environoment; including uptake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide.
  27. Digestive system
    • oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, rectum, and anus
    • functions: converts ingeste matter into molecules and ions that can be absorbed into the body; eliminates undigested matte; helps regulate water content
  28. excretory system
    • kidneys bladder, ureter, urethra
    • function: removes and eliminates excess water, ions, metabolic wastes, from body; helps regulate internal osmotic balance and pH; helps regulate blood pressure
  29. Reproductive System
    • Female: Ovaries, oviducts, uterus, vagina, mammary glands
    • male: testes, sperm ducts, accessory glands, and penis
    • functions: maintains the sexual characteristics and passes on genes to the next generation
  30. Negative feedback control systems
    • Stimulus: an environmental change that triggers a response
    • sensor: the body component that detects the environmental change
    • integrator: a control center that receives information from the sensor and compares it with the set point, the normal level for the condition being controlled. the integrator typically part of the brain or endocrine system sends out commands to correct any significant change from the set point detected
    • effector: a system that is activated by the integrator to bring the condition under control back to the set point. effectors may include esentially any body tissue or organ
    • Thermostat
  31. Positive feedback
    • example is child birth in women the head of child pushes against the cervix, the body releases oxytocin which causes the woman to have more contractions
    • this system goes into effect when life threatening conditions are in effect or reproduction
    • this response intensifies or adds to changes
  32. temperature regulation of invertebrates
    • invertebrates such as moths and dragonflies use muscular contractions equivalent to shivering when their body temperature falls below the level required for flight
    • the shivering contraction warm the muscles to flying temperature
  33. temperature regulation of vertebrates
    • mammals sweat or pant to regulate body temp or their hair stands up to maximize heat retention
    • reptiles rely on environment such as when their cold they go to a sunny rock or hot to a shaded spot
    • mammals also utilize negative feedback through fevers that are the bodies attempt to kill viruses or bacteria whenever its attacking it
  34. vitamins
    • organic molecules required in small quantities that the animal cannot synthesize for itself
    • many are coenzymes¬† or non protein organic sub units associated with enzymes that assist in enzymatic catalysis
  35. essential minerals
    inorganic elements such as calcium, iron, and magnesium
  36. essential nutrients
    the essential amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals that are collectively known are its______________
  37. humans
    8 essential amino acids are required for _____________
  38. Mouth (oral Cavity)
    entrance to the system; food is moistened and chewed; polysaccharide digestion begins
  39. pharynx
    muscular contraction that move food to the esohphagus by swallowing reflex
  40. salivary glands
    secrete saliva; wich contains lubricating mucus, amylase( a starch digesting enzyme); lysozyme(an enzyme that kills bacteria; and bicarbonate ions
  41. esophagus
    muscular; mucus moistened tube moves food from pharynx to stomach
  42. liver
    secretes bile which emulsifies fats and bicarbonate ions
  43. stomach
    muscular sac; stretches to store food; secretes mucus and gastric juice that contains pepsinogen, the precursor to the protein digesting enzyme pepsin and hydrochloric acid
  44. gallbladder
    stores and concentrates bile secreted by the liver
  45. pancreas
    secretes enzymes ( proteases, amylases, lipases, nucleases) that break down food molecules and bicarbonate ions that neutralize digestive contents
  46. small intestine
    • duodenum receives secretions from liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Produces enzymes that complete digestion of proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids,
    • absorbs products of digestion
  47. large intestine
    absorbs water and mineral ions, secretes mucus and bicarbonate ions; concentrates on undigested matter into feces
  48. rectum
    • stores feces,
    • distension stimulates expulsion of feces
  49. anus
    • end of system
    • opening through which feces are expelled
  50. vitamins
    • humans require 13 of these in their diet
    • many metabolic processess depend on ____ and the absence of one can affect the function of others
  51. water soluble vitamins
    • vitamins that dissolve in water
    • any ammount of these above the daily nutrional amount required is excreted in the urine
  52. fat soluble vitamins
    • hydrophobic
    • the body stores excess of these vitamins in adipose tissue.
  53. herbivores
    this type of organism has digestive chambers in which symbiotic microorganisms digest plant matter into molecules that can be absorbed by the host
  54. simple invertebrates such as sponges, cnidarians, and flatworms
    have no circulatory system
  55. animals with circulatory systems
    have a muscular heart that pumps a specialized fluid such as blood from one body region to another through tubular vessels. the blood carries O2 and nutrients to body tissues and carries away CO2 and wastes
  56. Open circulatory system
    invertebrates have this in which the heart pumps haemolymph in vessels that empty into body spaces called sinuses before returning to the heart.
  57. closed circulatory system
    some invertebrates and all vertebrates have this system in which the blood is confined to blood vessels throughout the body and does not mix directly with interstitial fluid
  58. mammalian blood
    fluid connective tissue consisting of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets suspended in a fluid matrix, the plasma
  59. plasma
    • contains water, ions, dissolved gasses, glucose, amino acids, lipids, vitamins, hormones, and plasma proteins.
    • plasma proteins include albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
  60. erythrocytes
    contain hemoglobin, which transports O2 between the lungs and all body regions
  61. leukocytes
    contain hemoglobin which transports o2 between the lungs and all body regions
  62. platelets
    are functional cell fragments that trigger clotting reactions at sites of damage to the circulatory system
  63. the mammalian heart
    • 4 chambered pump
    • two atria at the top
    • two ventricles at the bottom
    • pumps blood into pulmonary and systemic circuits of blood vessels
  64. arterioles
    small branches or arteries that deliver blood to capillaries, where substances are exchanged with interstitial fluid
  65. walls of the arteries
    • consist of inner endothelial layer
    • middle layer of smooth muscle
    • and outer layer of elastic fiber
  66. capillary
    in these networks, blood flow is considerably slower than in arteries and veins
  67. removing viruses bacteria, damaged cells and cellular debris from the lymph and bloodstream and defend the body against infection and cancer
    the tissues and organs of the lymphatic system including the lymph nodes, spleen thymus and tonsils function by doing what?
  68. cardiac output which is the degree of blood vessel constiction and the total blood vloume
    the autonomic nervous system and endocrine system controls this system
    blood flow and pressure are regulated by controlling
  69. fish respiration
    • in this species gills are evanginations of the body surface. water moves over the gills by the beating of cilia or is pumped over the gills by contractions of the body muscles
    • in sharks, bony fishes and crabs water moves in a one way direction which allows animals to use countercurrent exchange to maximize the exchange of gases over the respiratory surface
  70. bird respiration
    • have air sacs
    • more complex than in animals
    • function as a bellows to keep air flowing through the lungs
    • sacs fill when inhaling
    • when they exhale the sacs empty and lungs fill
    • they breathe during exhalation
  71. amphibian respiration
    ventillates lungs through poistive pressure breathing, in which air is forced through the lungs by muscle contractions
  72. bohr effect
    • factors that contribute to the release of O2 from hemoglobin including increased acidity or lower pH in active tissues
    • the acidity increases because oxidative reactions release Co2 which combines with water to form carbonic acid
    • the lowered pH alters hemoglobins conformation, reducing its affinity for O2
  73. the mammalian respiratory system
    air enters the respiratory system through the nose and mouth and passes through the pharynx, larynx and trachea
  74. trachea
    • divides into two bronchi which leads into the lung.
    • within the lungs the bronchi branch into bronchioles which lead into the alveoli which are surrounded by dense networks of blood capilaries
  75. Negative pressure mechanism
    Mammals inhale by _______ ___________ _________. air is exhaled passively by the relation of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles between the ribs and elastic recoil in the lungs
  76. tidal volume
    the ________ __________ of the lungs is the air moved in and out of the lungs during an inhalation and exhalation
  77. vital capacity
    the ______ _________ of the lungs is the total volume of air a person can inhale and exhale by breathing as deeply as possible
  78. residual volume
    the air remaining in the lungs after as much air as possible is exhaled is the ________ ________ of the lungs
  79. interneurons and medulla
    the basic rhythm of breathing is produced by ______ in the _______.
  80. tracheal system
    in insects the _______ _________ utilizes an extensive system of branching tubes, and channels air from the outside to the internal organs and most individual cells of the animal
  81. The inflamatory response
    • - A break in skin introduces bacteria, which reproduces at the wound site. Activated resident macrophages engulf the pathogens and secrete cytokines and chemokines
    • - Mast cells in the area are activated by the tissue damage and release histamine.
    • - Histamine and cytokines dilate local blood vessels and increase their permeability. the cytokines also make the blood vessel wall sticky, causing neutrophils and monocytes to attach
    • - chemokines attract neutrophils and monocytes which squeeze out between cells of the blood vessel wall and migrate to the infection site
    • - monocytes differentiate into macrophages. Neutrophils and macrophages engulf the pathogens and destroy them.
  82. innate immune system
    the ____________ ___________ ________, the inherited mechanisms  that protect the body from many kinds of pathogens in a nonspecific way
  83. adaptive immune system
    the inherited mechanisms leading to synthesis of molecules that target pathogens in a specific way
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bio test 2
bio exam 2 cards
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