Lycophyta a.__major genera b.Depending on genus, called __, __, or __ c.Lycopodia not found in __ d.Evolution of leaves: i.Two major ways the leaves evolve
club mosses, spike mosses,, or quillworts
Explain the evolution
1.Split into two groups
a.Ancestral lycophyte that was homosporous that split into Lycopodia and Selaginella, which are herbaceous plants; the other group produces woody material
b.Three lines are represented today; the other is not (lepidodendrales)
In the past what was up with Lycophytes?
Approx how old is Lepidodendron?
a.They were the size of trees; very large in size
i.Lepidodendron: approximately 300 million years old
a.Club mosses are __than mosses are i.Been around a long time; around 395 million years b.All __; none __ c.With the exception of bryophytes, the dominant part of the plant is the __ i.__ or __ depending on genus ii.c__ is the reproductive structure of club moss 1.Each segment is a __ 2.The term for a leaf that bears one or more sporangia is called a __
herbaceous; none woody
Homosporous or heterosporous
Strobilus (or cone)
a.__ is not the criteria to put them together b.They have __ i.Leaves not __, except for __ c.__: small leaves; common in __
vascular tissue: true roots, stems,, and leaves
a.Club Mosses (Lycopodium) i.Location 1.Majority in __ ii.__throughout iii.Most produce __, but not all 1.There are __not clustered enough to be called a __, but still clustered together a.__looks exactly like vegetative leaves b.Usually, leaves in strobilus are smaller than __, but in some club moss, it’s too hard to tell
arctic to tropics
i.Tend to favor areas that are a bit __ 1.All over Europe 2.Like habitats where the soil is __(somewhat) a.Places where __are prominent (why?) ii.In PA, there are some species that are normally found in PA that are endangered or threatened
conifers make soil acidic
i.One of the unique features of the spores of Lycopodia is that they __--> what does this enable? ii.__is very small 1.What can happen?
a.Water needed for what?
have a lot of fat in themà
they burn very easily
Some spores don’t germinate for years (unusual since most germinate right away); so, they get sifted down in soil by rain; usually end up with a gametophyte that has fungi attached to it (symbiotic?); others can be on the surface and lead to regular growth
the sperm ot get to archegonium
i.How does Selaginella differ from Lycopodia 1.Selaginella is much more __ a.Like __; can do really wel in house in a terrarium; leave them out and they don’t do well b.Like it more __than the club moss c.Not as many species as you would find in the US d.Found in the south, near Texas or Florida 2.In general, Selaginella is __ than Lycopodia a.__are so inconspicuous in the plant
warmer, more humid environment
farther south than
What is the selaginella life cycle? Club moss?
Club moss: homo
1.Heterosporosu a.__ and __ in the same strobilus i.Difference in __of sporangia 1.Megasporangia produces usually __ 2.The microsporangia produce __ b.When germination, Lycopodia have __ c.When germination, Selaginella have __
Mega and micro
only four megaspores
exosporal (not confined by walls of spores)
endosporal (gametophytes are very small)
i.Quillworts 1.__is on the bottom; really __; shaped like a __; down in the sediments 2.Location: found in most parts of the US; one psecies is southern; others are western; some are northern ; one species that is native to PA 3.A little more widespread in Europe 4.Life cycle? a.Sporangium are where?