Acts of independent significance
Only for tangible property and cash. Does not apply to title documents, deeds, stock certificates, or bank passports.
Can apply to future acts, in addition to acts done prior to execution of will.
Independent significance: If the testator, the beneficiary, or some third person has some control over the act or event, it may still have independent legal significance if it is unlikely that the testator or other person would perform such act solely for testamentary reasons.
Example: Will leaves gift to "the man who is my niece’s spouse at the time of my death." The law does not presume that the niece would marry or divorce merely to complete the terms of the will.