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Type I error
the rejection of a true null hypothesis
Type II error
the acceptance of a false null hypothesis
a statement of no relationship between variables; rejected when an observed statistic appears unlikely under the null hypothesis.
A theoretical distribution that can be specified for any statistic that can be computed for samples from a population
One Tailed Test
a statistical test where extreme results leading to rejection of the null hypothesis can be located at either tail
Two Tailed Test
A statistical test where extreme results leading to rejection of null hypothesis will be located at both left and right tails
What can happen when you control for a third variable in a bivariate relationship?
- 1. Nothing
- 2. The correlation between X and Y reduces dramatically (Either there is spuriousness or Z is intervening)
- 3. The relationship between X and Y changes but does not disappear (then Z is a conditional variable)
Issues in Questionnaire Construction
- What do you want to know? What do you expect respondents to know?
- Question Content (Fact or Opinion, wording, provide middle alternatives)
- Question Type: Closed vs Open-ended
- Response Format for Closed-ended
- Question order
What to consider when evaluating a Poll (1)
- Topic - is it something people know about?
- Screen for non-attitudes – Did the organization give respondents middle
- Question wording -Did the organization give you the question wordings?
- Question Order: Questions can be placed to lead respondents in certain ways
What to consider when evaluating a Poll (2)
- Sample definitions - Probability sample? From what population?
- Sub-sample sizes and error margins
- What happens if certain demographics are pulled
- out? (error margin increases)
- Who sponsored the poll?
- What's the spin?
Advantages of Secondary Analysis
- Less expensive
- May be the only source
- You can replicate/triangulate someone else's research with your own
Disadvantages of Secondary Analysis
- May only approximate the data you want
- May have hidden biases
- Sometimes access is a problem
Advantages of Interviewer-Administered Questionnaires
- Higher response rate
- Can probe and clarify
- Quick turnaround
Disadvantages of Interviewer-Administered Questionnaires
- High costs
- Possible interviewer bias
- No anonymity
Advantages of Self-Administered Questionnaires
- Low cost
- No interviewer bias
- Greater anonymity
- Considered responses
Disadvantages of Self-Administered Questionnaires
- Lower Response Rate
- Requires simple questions and answers
- Nobody there to clarify/probe
- Takes time (opportunities for outside phenomena to interfere)