chapter 13 & 14 cell bio

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lacythecoolest
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270485
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chapter 13 & 14 cell bio
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2014-04-13 22:30:43
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cell biology
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chapter 13
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  1. Series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions by which large biological molecules are synthesized from smaller subunits; usually requires an input of energy.
    anabolic pathway
  2. Process by which cells harvest the energy stored in food molecules; usually accompanied by the uptake of O2 and the release of CO2.
    cell respiration
  3. Series of reactions that generates large amounts of NADH by oxidizing acetyl groups derived from food molecules to CO2. In eukaryotic cells, this central metabolic pathway takes place in the mitochondrial matrix.
    citric acid cycle
  4. A series of membrane-embedded electron carrier molecules that facilitate the movement of electrons from a higher to a lower energy level, as in oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis.
    electron-transport chain
  5. A high-energy electron carrier produced by reduction of FAD during the breakdown of molecules derived from food, including fatty acids and acetyl CoA.
    FADH2 (reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide)
  6. The breakdown of organic molecules without the involvement of molecular oxygen. This form of oxidation yields less energy than aerobic cell respiration.
    fermentation
  7. Nucleotide that is produced by the hydrolysis of the terminal phosphate of GTP, a reaction that also produces inorganic phosphate.
    GDP (guanosine 5′-diphosphate)
  8. Set of enzyme-catalyzed reactions by which glucose is synthesized from small organic molecules such as pyruvate, lactate, or amino acids; in effect, the reverse of glycolysis.
    gluconeogenesis
  9. Nucleoside triphosphate used in the synthesis of RNA and DNA. Like the closely related ATP, serves as an activated carrier in some energy-transfer reactions. Also has a special role in microtubule assembly, protein synthesis, and cell signaling.
    v
  10. Process in bacteria and mitochondria in which ATP formation is driven by the transfer of electrons from food molecules to molecular oxygen.
    oxidative phosphorylation
  11. General term for an enzyme that catalyzes addition of subunits to a nucleic acid polymer. DNA polymerase, for example, makes DNA, and RNA polymerase makes RNA.
    polymerase
  12. In chloroplasts and photosynthetic bacteria, the part of the membrane-bound photosystem that captures energy from sunlight; contains an array of proteins that bind hundreds of chlorophyll molecules and other photosensitive pigments.
    antenna complex
  13. Process by which green plants and other photosynthetic organisms incorporate carbon atoms from atmospheric carbon dioxide into sugars. The second stage of photosynthesis.
    carbon fixation
  14. Mechanism that uses the energy stored in a transmembrane proton gradient to drive an energy-requiring process, such as the synthesis of ATP or the transport of a molecule across a membrane.
    chemiosmotic coupling
  15. Light-absorbing green pigment that plays a central part in photosynthesis.
    chlorophyll
  16. Membrane-bound, colored, heme-containing protein that transfers electrons during cellular respiration and photosynthesis.
    cytochrome
  17. Protein complex that serves as the final electron carrier in the respiratory chain; removes electrons from cytochrome c and passes them to O2 to produce H2O.
    cytochrome c oxidase
  18. In photosynthesis, the set of reactions that produce sugars from CO2; these reactions, also called carbon fixation, can occur in the absence of sunlight.
    dark reactions
  19. Metal complex found in electron carriers that operate early in the electron-transport chain; has a relatively weak affinity for electrons.
    iron–sulfur center
  20. In photosynthesis, the set of reactions that converts the energy of sunlight into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH.
    In photosynthesis, the set of reactions that converts the energy of sunlight into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH.
  21. Large internal compartment within a mitochondrion.
    matrix
  22. Conversion of nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into nitrogen-containing molecules by soil bacteria and cyanobacteria.
    nitrogen fixation
  23. Large multiprotein complex containing chlorophyll that captures light energy and converts it into chemical energy; consists of a set of antenna complexes and a reaction center.
    photosystem
  24. Small, lipid-soluble, mobile electron carrier molecule found in the respiratory and photosynthetic electron-transport chains.
    quinone
  25. In photosynthetic membranes, a protein complex that contains a specialized pair of chlorophyll molecules that performs photochemical reactions to convert the energy of photons (light) into high-energy electrons for transport down the photosynthetic electron-transport chain.
    reaction center
  26. Two molecules that can be interconverted by the gain or loss of an electron; for example, NADH and NAD+.
    redox pair
  27. A measure of the tendency of a given redox pair to donate or accept electrons.
    redox potential
  28. A reaction in which electrons are transferred from one chemical species to another. An oxidation–reduction reaction.
    redox reaction
  29. Set of proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane that facilitates the transfer of high-energy electrons from NADH to water while pumping protons into the intermembrane space.
    respiratory enzyme complex
  30. In a chloroplast, the large interior space that contains the enzymes needed to incorporate CO2 into sugars during the carbon-fixation stage of photosynthesis; equivalent to the matrix of a mitochondrion.
    stroma
  31. In a chloroplast, the flattened disclike sac whose membranes contain the proteins and pigments that convert light energy into chemical energy during photosynthesis.
    thylakoid
  32. In a chloroplast, the large interior space that contains the enzymes needed to incorporate CO2 into sugars during the carbon-fixation stage of photosynthesis; equivalent to the matrix of a mitochondrion.
    stroma

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