Sociology Exam 3: Ch 6 7 8

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  1. Age:
    both a biological and social classification; there are social dictates regarding age--socially and culturally defined expectations about the meaning of age, our understanding of it, and our responses to it.
  2. Life Course perspective
    -how does it view stages of life?
    -where does aging occur?
    • Examines the entire course of human life from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood to old age.
    • • Views “stages of life” as social constructions that reflect the broader structural conditions of society.

    • Aging occurs within a social context: one’s social class, education, occupation, gender, and race will determine how one experiences adolescence or old age.
  3. Population aging:
    a change in our demographic structure. The median age of our populaon is increasing.
  4. Demography:
    -Demographers have identified several reasons for population aging?
    the study of the size, composition, and distribution of populations.

    • Demographers have identified several reasons for population aging.
    • – A decline in birth rates.
    • – Advances in medical and technology increase life expectancy.
    • – Longer life expectancies require that society redefine what it means to be old
    • – Aging of the large Baby boom cohort (post World War II) significantly contribute to the aging of the U.S. population.
  5. A cohort
    a group of people born during a par;cular period who experience common life events during the same historical period
  6. % Of US households w/ One or More Adults 65 or older:
    • - Florida: 30% or greater.
    • -25-29.9: NY, PA, WV, AL, AR, AZ, NM
    • -Cali: 23.3
    • -lowest: UT, CO, Alaska, GA (below 19.9%)
  7. Boomerangers
    • young adults who leave home for college, but return after graduation due to economic constraints or personal choice.
    • • Surveys of recent college graduates note that nearly half of those surveyed expected to live with their families for some period.
  8. Functionalist Perspective on Age, Aging, and Inequality
    • Age helps maintain the stability of society by providing a set of roles and expectations for each particular age group or for a particular life stage.

    • Roles are reinforced by our major social institutions— education, the economy, and family.

    • • Each age group has its own func;on or role—the young attend school preparing for their adult lives; adults are employed and building their lives, and the elderly retire.
    • • Disengagement theory
    • • This perspective fails to acknowledge how vulnerable and powerless adults are in their older years.
  9. Disengagement theory:
    defines aging as a natural process of withdrawal from active participation in social life.

    – Older people disengage from society (from their work and certain parts of their lives), and in turn, society disengages from the them.

    – The theory contends that people enter and exit a set of roles throughout their lives. 

    – These transitions are natural and functional for society (fuctiionalism)

    • This perspective fails to acknowledge how vulnerable and powerless adults are in their older years.
  10. Modernization theory of aging
    • suggests that the role and status of the elderly declines with industrialization
    • – Their power, wealth, and prestige are linked with their labor contribution or their relationship to the means of production
    • • In modern industrial society, life experience is surpassed by technological expertise, thus the status of the elderly declines.
    • • Two groups, the young and the old are in conflict with one another.
  11. Modernization lowers the status of older people in four ways (Aging)
    • 1. Longer life spans result in few worker deaths. Therefore, older workers are pushed into retirement, where they have less income and influence.
    • 2. Younger workers have more opportunities to obtain education and technological skills and therefore have an advantage in the workplace.
    • 3. The economic system is increasingly reliant on the most recent technology, which makes older workers obsolete.
    • 4. Urbanization : the young migrate to urban areas seeking opportunity more than the old do.

    • Produces a physical and emotional separation between a child and the family of origin

    • Also promotes the cultural image of the young moving to something better, while the old are less behind Feminist Perspective

    • The standards of our culture create more problems for women than for men as they transition into their middle and later years.

    • • Double standard of aging:men are judged in our culture according to what they can do (their competence, power, and control), but women are judged according to their appearance and beauty.
    • – Society considers men “distinguished” in their old age, but women must disguise the fact that they are aging.
  12. Interactionist Perspective on Age, Aging, and Inequality
    examine how the problems associated with aging are defined and by whom.

    • Interactions reveal how our age‐related roles are socially defined and expected.

    • • Age is tied to a system of matching people and roles
    • • For example, we share a definition of what it means to be middle aged, and there is an expectation that we need to assume a particular role once we are middle aged. Role expectations can stigmatize age groups.

    •Stigma-a discrediting attribute

    • Older adults are discredited in society, stereotyped as less capable, fragile, weak, and frail.
  13. Ageism
    • the stereotyping (or discrimination) of older adults.
    • – Damages the self‐concepts of the elderly.

    – Represents a self-perpetuating cycle of fears that old and younger adults have toward aging in general, disability, death, competition for resources, and the perceived inferiority of particular individuals.

    – This may increase social isolation, dependency, and elderly abuse and may become a self-fulfilling prophecy for others.
  14. The consequences of inequality based ageism
    -germans vs US adults
    -ageism marks a sharp distinctiion b/w us and them

    -older adults are marginialized, institutionalized, and stripped of their responsibility, diginity and power.

    -Research indicates that german young adults view aging more negatively than Americans; because Germany has more prevalent negative stereotypes of older people, a response to the increasing costs of providing extension pension and health benefits to the elderly in Germany. While US has effective political advocacy groups, increasingly healthy and influential older adults, and educational aging programs.
  15. "what is old?"
    -germans vs americans..
    Jasim McConatha and her colleagues (2003) asked young adult Germans and Americans what age they consider as “old.” The average age that Germans reported was 64 for men and 60 for women; the U.S. sample reported 53 for men and 48 for women.
  16. Age and Social Class
    -2008, percent elderly in US?
    -retirment means?
    • • In 2008, 10% of the elderly were living in poverty in the United States.
    • • Retirement represents a precipitous income drop for most elderly.
    • • Recessions deplete savings and other assets
    • • Poverty rates among the elderly vary by race/ ethnicity and gender.
  17. Personal Money Income For the 65+ population in 2001
    • 39%: social security
    • 24%: Earnings
    • 18%: Pensions (excluding social sec)
    • 16%: Asset income.
  18. Percentage of 65+ population in Poverty by sex/race (2003)
    -Men: 7.3 & women: 12.5

    -highest: Black women: 27.4 followed by hispanic women: 21.7

    • -Asians:16; men=12.3
    • -high to low: black, hispanic, asian, whites.
  19. Health and Medical Care (CHAPTER SIX: AGE & AGING)
    -common cause of death?
    -how much of the total health expenditures consumed?
    • • Geriatrics is a medical specialty that focuses on diseases of the elderly.
    • • The most common causes of death among the elderly are heart disease, cancer, and stroke.
    • • Elderly also experience chronic conditions such as hypertension (high blood pressure) and heart disease that may contribute to fatal disorders.
    • • American elderly, who constitute 13 % of our population, consume more than 35 % of total health expenditures—more than 4 times what is spent on younger people.
  20. Older woman..
    • • Older women face different health challenges than older men.
    • • Women- Make up a higher proportion of the older and frailer popula;on.
    • – Are less likely to have a spouse to assist them.
    • – Need more help with personal care and rou;ne needs.
    • – Require more health care and long‐term care services than men do, services often not covered by Medicare. This results in higher out-of-pocket expenses for older women
  21. Ageism in the Workplace
    • In the workplace, older workers have been discriminated against in favor of younger, cheaper, less experienced workers.

    • • During the recession of the early 1980s
    • – Older men were less likely to lose their jobs than were younger men.

    • • During the recession of the early 1990s
    • – Older men were just as likely to be laid off as were younger men.

    • Ageism restricts job opportuni;es for mature workers, as they are not offered the same promotion opportunities, training or compensation as younger workers.
  22. Responding to Age Inequalities
    • Social Security
    • • Social Security – Began in 1935.
    • – Designed to provide economic security for the aged and poor.
    • – Focuses on providing social insurance rather than social assistance (such as welfare assistance).
    • – Includes monthly payments one receives after retiring, unemployment insurance, aid to dependent children, and state grants to provide medical care.
  23. U.S System: Social Security

    -1935, 2000, 2050, 2017
    – Pay-as-you-go system—current workers support current beneficiaries of the program , today’s workers pay for today’s re;rees.

    – Policy analysts have warned about the danger of having few workers paying for the benefits for a growing number of re;rees.

    • – In 1935 the elderly cons;tuted 5% of the population.
    • – In 2000 the elderly cons;tuted 12% of the population.
    • – By 2050 the elderly are projected to cons;tute 21% of the population.
    • – By 2017 , the system will be spending more than it receives.
  24. Swedish System: Social Security
    – Pensions based on average life expectancy at time of retirement. 

    – Can retire anytime after age of  61, but the later they retire, the higher their payments.

    – Allows Swedes to draw a partial pension for partial retirement, mixing employment income with their pension funds.

    – Funded by an 18.5 percent payroll tax (the United States collects 12.4 percent).

    – partially privatized, individuals can invest the money from their pension account or the government invests on their behalf.
  25. Canadian System: Social Security
    • – Three parts
    • • Old Age Security program
    • •Canada Pension Plan
    • • private pensions and savings
    • – Minimum age of eligibility for early retirement benefits is 60.
    • – Collects a 9.9 percent payroll tax to support the program
  26. Medicare Two Parts
    -Part A vs B
    • • Part A: Hospital Insurance helps pay for care received as an inpatient in critical access hospitals or skilled nursing facilities, as well as some home health care
    • – financed through a payroll tax paid equally by employers and workers.

    • • Part B:Physician and Outpatient Coverage pays for medically necessary services and supplies that are not covered under Part A.
    • – ¾ of the financing for Medicare Plan B is received from general tax revenues, and the remaining quarter is financed directly through paid premiums.

    • Medicare is a “pay as you go” system: every payroll tax dollar that is contributed into the fund is immediately spent by those currently enrolled.

    • • Problems are likely to arise because:
    • – health care costs are increasing
    • – the number of elderly beneficiaries is expected to continually increase.
  27. 2003 Medicare Reform Law
    • – Included a prescription drug benefit for the first time in the program’s history.
    • – Critics say the plan doesn’t provide seniors with substantial relief for the cost of prescription drugs.
    • – The cost of the bill is es;mated at more than $900 billion over 10 years.
    • – Analysts predict that the reform bill will have little effect on slowing down the increasing costs of prescription drugs and medical services for the elderly.
  28. Senior Political Power
    • The enactment of old age related policies has created a political constituency of older beneficiaries

    • – This also led to the perception that older voters
    • • Have a great deal of influence.
    • • Are willing to put their needs (Social Security and Medicare) ahead of other age groups. What are older voters really like?

    • • Older age is associated with:
    • -voter registration and actual voting
    • – length of residence in one’s home
    • – level of knowledge about political and social issues.
    • – campaign contributions
    • – contacting representatives

    • As a result, candidates actively court the senior vote.

    • • However, data indicate that the senior vote does not have a huge impact that sways elections toward senior issues.
    • – Seniors don’t vote as a block

    • • The image of senior power persists because it serves the purposes of several interest groups.
    • – Leaders of old-age‐based organizations (such as AARP) have their own set of incentives to inflate the political importance of the constituency they represent.
    • – Other political groups use senior power as a “straw man” to argue that more resources should be allocated to their causes.
    • – Journalists use senior power “as a tabloid symbol that simplifies the complexities of politics.
  29. Family Defined…sociologically
    -family & household
    • • Family
    • –a construct of meaning and relationships both emotional and economic.
    • – A social unit based on kinship relations, not only relations based on blood, but also those created by choice, marriage, partnership, or adopBon.
    • • Household - as an economic and residential unit.
  30. Myths of the Family
    • Image of the nuclear family—a father, a mother, and biological or adopted children living together—is exalted as the ideal family.

    • • Several changes in family composition occurred between 1970 and 2007.
    • – Percentage of families composed of married couples with children declined from 40.3% to 22.5 %

    Only increase in family groups came in category of “other family households” (families whose householder has no spouse present, and may include other relatives, as well as children). 

    – There has been an increase in the percentage of non-­family households, individuals living alone or with non-relatives.
  31. 2007 US census of single women, reasons?
    • In 2007, U.S. Census data revealed that for the first time more American women were living without a husband than with one.

    • • Reasons for the larger number of single women include:
    • – late marriage for women
    • – women living longer as widows, or after a divorce
    • – women being more likely than men to delay remarriage
  32. Households by Type: 1970 and 2007
    -Men living alone rises from 5.6 to 11.7

    -Households rise from 63 mill to 112 mill

    -women living alone: 11.5 to 15.2

    -Married couple w/ children decrease from 40.2 to 22.5

    -Married couple w/o children decrease: 303.3 to 28.3

    --> Even though nuclear family is not the statistical majority, its image as the "perfect family" still persists.
  33. Socially Constructed Beliefs on “Family”
    • We tend to believe that families of the past were better and happier than today.

    • We believe that families should be safe havens, protecting their members from harm and danger.

    • We assume that the family and its failings lead to many of our social problems. 

    • There is a persistent belief that nontraditional families, such as divorced, fatherless, or working- mother families, threaten and erode the integrity of the family as an institution
  34. Functionalist Perspective:  FAMILIES
    • • The family is the most vital social institution. • Family confers social status and class.
    • • Family helps define who we are and how we find our place in society.
    • • Family provides for the essential needs of the child: affection, socialization, and protection.
    • • Social problems emerge as the family adapts to a modern social society which has taken over many of the family’s original functions (religion, education, work) 
    • • Family functions in concert with the other institutions, so changes in the economy, politics, or law, contribute to changes and problems in the family.
    • • Because of the family’s social and emotional functions, problems in the family (e.g. divorce or domestic violence) can also lead to problems in the society, such as crime, poverty, or delinquency.
  35. Conflict and Feminist Perspectives: FAMILIES
    • • Conflict theorists -the family is a system of inequality where conflict is normal.
    • - inequality emerges from the patriarchal family system, where men control decision making in the family.
    • • Men maintain their position of power in the family through violence or the threat of violence against women
    • • Families are also subject to powerful economic and political interest groups who control social programs and policies.
    • • Conflict arises when the needs of particular family form
  36. Interactionist Perspective:  FAMILIES
    • • Social interaction helps create and maintain our definition of a family. 
    • • Within families, interactions through words, symbols, and meanings define our expectation of what the family should be like.
    • • Problems arise when there is conflict about how the family is defined.
    • • Problems may also occur when partners’ expectations of family or marriage do not
  37. Divorce
    -Rising divorce rates are attributed to:
    • Was rare until the 70s.

    • • Rising divorce rates are attributed to:
    • – no-fault divorce laws.
    • – economic independence of women.
    • – transition from extended to nuclear families.
    • – increasing geographic and occupational mobility.

    • As societal and cultural norms surrounding divorce have changed the stigma  has decreased.
  38. Divorce rates higher for:
    • – Those who marry when younger than 20 years of age.
    • – Those living at 200 percent of the poverty level
    • – Those with a high school degree or some college
    • – Among those working full time
    • – Children with divorced parents have moderately poorer life and educational outcomes (emotional well-being, academic achievement, labor force participation, divorce, and teenage childbearing)
    • – Research also suggests that under some circumstances divorce can be beneficial to the well-being of children
    • – Research consistently indicates that although men experience minimal economic declines after divorce, most women experience a substantial decline in household income and increased dependence on social welfare Violence and
  39. Neglect in the Family--Intimate Partner Violence
    • In the U.S. nearly 25% of surveyed women and 8% of surveyed men reported that they were raped or physically assaulted by a current or former intimate partner.

    • Research has linked the following to family violence: low socioeconomic status, social and structural stress, and social isolation.

    • Feminist researchers argue domestic violence is rooted in gender and represents men’s attempts to maintain dominance and control over women.

    • Cultural differences of domestic violence have not been fully recognized. Research has largely focused on White and poor women
  40. Child Abuse
    – Child abuse is 15 times more likely to occur when spousal abuse occurs.

    – Children are 3 times more likely to be abused by their fathers than their mothers.

    • Neglect- a failure to provide for a child’s basic needs. Can be Physical, Educational, Emotional, Neglect often goes unnoticed
  41. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    •Institutional elder abuse
    •Domestic elder abuse-
    •Institutional elder abuse -forms of abuse that occur in residential facilities for older people.

    • •Domestic elder abuse- any form of maltreatment by someone with a special relationship with the elder (a spouse, child, friend, or caregiver).
    • – Usually occurs when elders are in the care of their older children and families, also occurs within a nursing home or hospital setting.
    • – Includes physical, sexual, or psychological abuse, neglect/abandonment, or financial exploitation.
    • – Caregiving can positively affect physical and psychological well-being, but the added burden may strain the caregiver’s emotional and financial resources.

    – Elder abuse, particularly with family perpetrators, has been attributed to social isolation, personal problems such as mental illness, alcohol, or drug abuse, and domestic violence
  42. Teen Pregnancies & Newborn Abandonment
    • • U.S. has the highest teen birthrate in the developed world.
    • – Has been attributed to inadequate sexuality education to declining morals
    • – Teen mothers likely to be poorer and less educated, less likely to be married, and more likely come from families with lower income.
    • – Children often lag behind in early development, are less likely to receive proper nutrition, health care, and cognitive stimulation, and are at greater risk of social behavioral problems and lower academic achievement.
    • – Abandoned babies found in trash bins, restrooms, parks, and public buildings have become more frequent since the late 1990s
  43. **Live Birth Rates for Teenagers Aged 15 to 19 Years, by Race and Hispanic Origin, 1991–2005 (graph)
  44. The Problems of Time and Money: Families
    • In a survey, 79% reported that a work schedule that enabled them to spend time with their family was a top priority, and nearly everyone reported feeling pressed for more Time in their lives.

    • Mothers spend an average of 13 hours per week with their children compared with 7 hours per week for fathers.

    • Mothers do most of the routine care of children, whereas fathers spend their time with children doing interactive activities (enrichment activities such as talking or reading to them)

    • Economic realities make it difficult for working-class parents to balance work and family.

    • Lower income families deal with the most basic problems on a daily basis: managing the safety, health, and education of their children while staying employed.

    • Structural changes in the economy undermine the quality of life among working class families
  45. Family Medical Leave Act of 1993
    • Provides employees with up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave per year, and provides for group health benefits during leave.

    • Applies to all public agencies and all private employers with 50 or more workers.

    • Nearly 2/3 of eligible workers have not taken advantage of FMLA because they couldn’t afford the lost wages.
  46. • Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention –
    Established community-based children’s advocacy centers to provide support for victims in the investigation, treatment, prosecution, and prevention of child abuse.
  47. • Violence Against Women Office (VAW)
    – Offers a series of program and policy technical papers for individuals, leaders, and communities to support their efforts to end violence against women.
  48. • National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA) –
    Supports community “sentinel” programs, which train and educate professionals and volunteers to identify potential victims of abuse, neglect, or exploitation
  49. Teen Pregnancy & Infant Abandonment
    • Welfare Reform Act (1996)

    • 2 primary provisions affected teen parents and their access to welfare assistance:
    • Welfare Reform Act (1996) mandated the DHHS to assure that at least 25% of communities had teen pregnancy prevention programs.

    • • 2 primary provisions affected teen parents and their access to welfare assistance:
    • – Teen parents must stay in school; financial assistance cannot be provided to unmarried, minor, custodial parents who do not have a high school degree or equivalent.
    • – Teen parents must live in adult-supervised setting.
    • – In response to newborn and infant abandonment, 39 states have passed laws that offer safe and confidential means to relinquish unwanted newborns without the threat of prosecution for child abandonment.
  50. Supporting Different Family Forms
    • Some sociologists point to a serious decline in the structure and function of the family since the 60s because of high divorce rates, declining family size, and the growing absence of fathers and mothers in their children’s lives.

    • Others argue that this hypothesis relies too heavily on the “nuclear family” definition. Today’s families are characterized by diverse family patterns and forms, where no single family form is dominant.
  51. Stacey’s “postmodern family condition"

    • Grandparents as Parents-
    • Cohabitation
    • The nuclear family is giving way to family structures that include single-parent, blended, adoptive, foster, grandparent, and same-sex partner households. 2 prominent structures are:

    • Cohabitation -sexual partners, not married to each other, but residing in the same household.

    • Grandparents as Parents- In 2002 3.7 million children lived in households where a grandparent is the primary householder, about 1.3 million children lived with their grandparents alone.
  52. **A global view of cohabitation (graph)
  53. **Percentage of grandparents rising their grandchildren (map)
  54. Bachelor’s degree is becoming the educa4on standard in the U.S.
    -2009, percentage w/ HS deg and BS attainment?
    • – In 2009 85.3% of adults completed at least a high school degree.
    • – More than 27% of all adults had attained at least a bachelor’s degree.
    • – Approximately 76.5% of all Americans 65 years or older attained a high school degree or more compared with 87% of those 25 to 34 years old.
    • – Educational attainment level of adults will continue to rise, as younger, more-educated age groups replace older, less- educated ones
  55. **Educational Attainment of the Population, 25 Years and Older, 2007 (graph)
  56. Functionalist Perspective: Education
    -manifest vs latent functions
    -argue that?
    • • Manifest functions (intended consequences): 
    • – To educate, personal development, proper socialization, and employment.

    • • Latent functions (unintended consequences):
    • – Public babysitter, controls the entry and timing entrance into labor force, establish and protect social networks.

    • Educational system has taken over functions of other institutions, particularly the family

    • Functionalists argue that these additional tasks make it difficult to accomplish education’s primary task of educating young.
  57. **Average Income by Educational Attainment (graph)

    ** Percent Poor by Educational Attainment among Adults 25 and Older 2010 (graphs)

    ** Education Pays: Unemployment rate in 2011 vs Median weekly earnings in 2011 (graphs)
  58. Conflict Perspective: Education
    Conflict theorists-education isn’t an equalizer, but a “divider”; the haves from have notes; the socialization function of education is part of the indoctrination of western bureaucratic ideology .
  59. **Percent of Public school K-12 students nationwide (graph) & Compton vs Mira Costa High

    **How Teacher ratings relate to a school’s poverty level (graph)
  60. Public school Creates an organizational child who is:
    • • carefully instructed and supervised
    • • guided through the day in ordered agendas
    • • rewarded for conformity
    • • discouraged from individuality
    • • prepared for the demands and constraints of a bureaucratic adult world.
  61. The educational system can also perpetuate racial and economic inequalities.
    – Middle & upper class children have more “cultural capital”, giving them advantage over lower class children. (Bourdieu, 1977)

    – Social capital can also be procured through engagement in class linked extra-curricular activities and organizations (Lin 2001) creating more access to diverse knowledge and networks.
  62. Feminist Perspective--education
    • • Research shows the replication of gender relations in schools by the privileging of males
    • – Males have favored status in interactions with teachers.
    • – Girls are invisible and treated as “second-class educational citizens” in the classroom. 
    • – Boys received more praise, corrections, feedback and active teaching 
    • – Girls received a cursory “okay” response.
    • – Over Time the unequal distribution of teacher time and attention may take its toll on girls’ self-esteem, achievement rates, test scores, and careers (Sadker and Sadker,1994).
  63. ** Structural factors and interpersonal dynamics contribute to gender inequality on college and university campuses.
    – College women are subjected to male domination through peer relations, in the classroom, and in romantic involvements. 

    – Organized activities, like fraternity little sister programs, provide the structural and interpersonal dynamics necessary to create an atmosphere conducive to women’s subordination
  64. Interactionist Perspective: Education
    • focus on how classroom dynamics and practices educate the perfect student and at the same time create the not‐so‐perfect ones.
    • • The interaction between teachers and students reinforces the structure and inequalities of the educational system.

    • • With tracking (separating advanced and regular learners) students are identified as college bound versus work bound.
    • – Teachers, parents, and others might view students differently and the student’s true potential may be hindered.
  65. Problems and Challenges in American Education

    • 1983 National Commission on Excellence in Education report,
    • • 1983 National Commission on Excellence in Education report, A Nation at Risk was a scathing indictment of the education system
    • – Found widespread failures in educational system.
    • – Claimed we were raising a scientifically and technologically illiterate generation
    • – Noted relative poor performance of American students compared to international peers, declining test scores, weaknesses of our school programs and educators, and the lack of skilled American workforce 
    • • Some sociologists contend that the crisis in public education is manufactured by politicians, educational experts, and business leaders.
    • • Doesn’t address the real problems facing our schools
    • – social and economic inequalities.
  66. The problem of basic literacy...stats.
    -how many mills illiterate; woman %?
    -low literacy skills: % of Americans
    -connection to poverty rates?
    • • Globally, more than 770 million adults are illiterate. 
    • – 64% are women

    • Literacy disparitues are associated with : Ethnicity, Gender, Poverty , Language

    • In The U.S. 43% of all Americans demonstrate “below basic” or “basic” literacy skills

    • • Implications of low literacy skills:
    • – Inability to find and retain jobs
    • – Support their children’s education
    • – Participate in communities  

    • •Nearly half of all adults performing at the lowest level were living in poverty
    • – compared to only 4‐8% of those in the two highest‘s proficiency levels.

    •U.S. spends more on educa4on than other high‐income countries, but our literacy scores are average in a world comparison.
  67. Inequality in educational access and achievement
    • • Social Class and Education
    • – Socioeconomic status is one of the most powerful predictors of student achievement.

    – The likelihood of dropping out of high school is five times higher among students from lower--income families than among their peers in high-income families.

    – Poor children begin school less prepared and struggle to keep up with their classmates.

    – Recent tuition increases and reduced availability of financial aid has reduced college access for many students.
  68. Achievement Gap:
    The rich-poor gap in standardized test scores is 40 % larger now than it was 30 years ago…family income is now a better predictor of children’s success in school than race. –New York Times
  69. Gender and Education
    – In 2000, females were the majority of undergraduate and graduate students. 

    – Males are 3 times more likely to pursue careers in science, mathematics or engineering than female.

    – Girls fail to achieve their potential due to lower expectations of success, the attribution of any success to chance and belief that success leads to negative social consequences.

    – However… Women narrowing the gap in math & science and more are completing Bachelor’s degrees Is there a “boy crisis” in educational attainment?
  70. Percentage Distribution of Full-Time College Students by Level and Sex, Fall 1970 to Fall 2000 (graph)
  71. Ethnicity/Race and Education
    • • Race/Ethnicity often predicts educational success
    • • Persistent academic achievement gaps remain between Black, Hispanic, and Native American students and their White and Asian peers
    • • The educational attainment of the young Hispanic population, ages 25 to 29, is lower than for other ethnic/ racial groups
    • • Poverty influences this pattern
    • • Stereotype threat is the risk of confirming in oneself a characteris4c that is part of a negative stereotype about one’s group.
  72. Differences in Educational Attainment (in percent) by Race and Hispanic Origin for Adults Age 25 to 29 years, 2003 (graph)
    •In a recent study by Lee and Zhou, children of Mexican immigrants had the lowest levels of educational attainment of any of the groups. Only 86% graduated from high school (compared to 100% of Chinese-­‐Americans and 96% of native-­‐born Anglos) and only 17% have graduated from college.

    •But their high school graduation rate was more than double that of their parents, only 40% of whom earned diplomas. And, the college graduation rate of Mexican immigrants’ children more than doubles that of their fathers (7%) and triples that of their mothers (5%).

    •When the measure of success is measured as progress from generation to generation, Mexican-Americans come out ahead.
  74. Violence and Harassment in Schools
    -LGBT students
    • In recent years there were fewer school‐associated violent death events, but were more deaths per event, i.e. Columbine.

    • About 5.5% of students miss more than 1 day of school because they feel unsafe at school or on their way to/from school.

    • • LGBT students are: 
    • – 3times as likely to be assaulted or involved in at least 1 physical fight in school. 
    • – 3 times more likely to have been threatened with a weapon in school
    • – 4 times more likely to skip school because they felt unsafe.
  75. Community, Policy, and Social Action
    • Reformers argue that school choice, standardized testing, and school vouchers are improving our educational system.

    • Critics argue this threatens to erode an already‐weak public school structure.

    • A deepening chasm between what the public deems as important (safety, skills, discipline) and the goals of the reform movement (access, standardization, multiculturalism)
  76. The Basis for Educational Reform Educate America Act of 1994
    • • Introduced “standards-­‐based reform” at state and community levels.
    • • Provided the grounds for sweeping reform at all levels and from all angles
    • • Established performance and content standards in math, English, science, and social studies
    • • Encouraged wide-­‐spread community participation
  77. No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001

    • Major provisions include:

    • Controversial elements include:
    • • Major provisions include:
    • – New reading and math standard assessments for Grades 3 to 8.
    • – More flexibility for states and local school officials for budget spending and program development.
    • – The creation of a teaching quality program.
    • – Consolidation of bilingual/immigrant education programs. 
    • – Increases in federal funding for Reading First plan.

    • • Controversial elements include: 
    • – Public school choice and charter schools.
    • – Annual testing of students in reading and math, in order to establish academic benchmarks
    • – Parents have the op4on to move their children to another school if their school is not improving.
    • – Critics say that school choice provisions will only work if there are schools to choose from within a district and if there is room in these schools.
  78. Promoting Educational Opportunities -­‐ Head Start
    • Largest early childhood program, serving over 20 million poor and at risk preschoolers since 1965.

    • Began with preschool centers, expanded to serve school aged children, high school students, pregnant women, and Head Start parents.

    • Research indicates that there is a positive relationship between early childhood program enrollment and high school graduation, home ownership, school attendance, and motivation.
  79. Mentoring, Supporting and Valuing Networks
    • Women and Girls
    • LGBT Students
    •Girls Can!
    • Women and Girls – Studies indicate that most girls and women learn best in cooperative, rather than competitive learning activities.

    • LGBT Students – LGBT students are about 5-6% of the total student population and have been a driving force behind creating change in their schools and communities.

    • •Girls Can! Community Coalitions Project in 1996 supported 10 programs in diverse communities that promoted gender equity and girls self-esteem in collaborative settings.
    • – Support groups and organized student activities like the Gay Straight Alliance (GSA) have emerged in CA, IL, and WA, providing support to LGBT teens, their friends and families.
  80. Anti‐Violence Programs in Schools
    • Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP). is a research based K‐12 school program in social and emotional learning.

    • – Aggression and violent behavior is learned and therefore can be reduced through education.
    • – Students in RCCP were more pro‐social, perceived their world in a less hostile way, saw violence as unacceptable, chose nonviolent ways to resolve conflict, had higher reading and math scores, and were more able to focus on academics when there was less conflict with peers.
  81. **What College and University Campuses Can Do to Make a Difference: Recommendations From the Tool Kit to End Violence Against Women (table)
  82. Does having a choice improve education?
    • Saporito and Lareau (1999)
    • Charter schools, magnet schools and school vouchers are designed to provide choice

    • The research remains mixed and divided on the effectiveness of these choice op4ons

    • • Research consistently shows that students from poorer families or with less‐educated parents are less likely to apply to or participate in public choice programs than are those from middle-­‐class families
    • • Saporito and Lareau (1999) concluded that race was a persistent factor in the choice process.
  83. median describess? know median age of us population over the decades and how it changes
    • -One way to confirm population is to look at the median age (the age where half the population is older and the other half is younger).
    • 1820: 17 years,
    • 1900:23 yrs,
    • 2000:35 years
    • and in 2030: median will be 42 years.

    -US has 13% of the elderly population with highest state: Florida 17.3%
  84. which continent with highest elderly population:
    Eastern and Western Europe
  85. what year will ppl over 65 yrs outnumber children under 5
  86. anti aging definition laws-act?
    • Age discrimination in Employment Act of 1967: prohibits employers from discriminating against ppl 40-64
    • -New Zealand Human Rights Act of 1993
    • -NZ Employment relations act of 2000..prohibit
  87. **recent divorce rates:
    -2000: 4.2 divorces per 1000 households

    -2009: 3.4
  88. **when were no fault divorces introduced::
  89. **US marital rate? trends..
    8.7 to 6.8 (declined from 2000-09)
  90. How many children live in households where the grandparent is the primary householder?
    5.4 million children live in households where the grandparent is the primary householder
  91. Cultural capital
    Cultural capital includes resources ranging from holding a graduate degree to having a grasp of a group’s customs and rituals, both of which may confer an advantage in job markets and social exchanges.
  92. Human capital
    refers to such individual traits as competence and work ethic, which may enable increased educational or professional attainment.These types of capital facilitate mobility by providing access to opportunities and the tools to acquire wealth and status.
Card Set
Sociology Exam 3: Ch 6 7 8
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