Roles of dominants and subordinates in old world simians

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  1. the old world simians form the taxonomic clade including what
    all the living spp of monkeys and apes native to africa and asia incl. the Hominids (the great apes)
  2. in most social groups, certain individuals are behaviourally what over others
  3. in caases such as male common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) overt aggression is ______ and it is obvious which individual is the ______
    • frequent 
    • alpha
  4. in some cases however, interactions _____ involve obvious aggression
  5. dominants seem to play _________ roles in social groups
  6. what did flack et al 2005 find?
    removing 3 most dominant males from captive group of 84 Pigtail Macaques for just few hours caused mayhem. each time they were removed, there was increased, more intense aggression, less friendly behaviour such as play and mutual grooming, than when the group was intact. without 3 doms, monkey society falling apart
  7. what did solly zuckerman suggest (1932)?
    dominant primates achieve higher Darwinian fitness than subordinates.
  8. what anecdotes did Zuckerman use
    about Rhesus macaques, argued that competing for high dominance was central to primate social life. this idea was quickly applied to other social animals, even though evidence was weak for a long time
  9. what did zuckerman's claims become known as
    priority of access model
  10. what was a criticism of the priority of access model
    big difference between being lone silverback in mountain goirlla group (single male) and one of many competing males in multi male group
  11. Primatologists recognised the importance of what in species with multi male groups?
    sperm competition
  12. in species with multi male groups, males tend to have what (Nasciemento et al 2008)
    bigger testes and faster sperm
  13. What did Lee Ellis' (1995) review of over 630 animal studies find?
    dominants had higher repro success in 3/4 of cases, evidence often equivocal (had more babies, but no more survived to maturity), only 4% studies reported subordinates did better than dominants. in remaining 1/5 no statistically sig differences in repro success
  14. What did ellis find about evidence
    it was often poor. e.g. male repro success in long lived spp was sometimes assessed as copulation rate over a few weeks in one mating season.
  15. evidence was more convincing for what?
    males than females
  16. among mammals, evidence was strongest for what and weakest for what
    • strongest: carnivores, ungulates and rodents
    • weakest: primates
  17. recent studies have provided more direct evidence by using what
    dna fingerprinting.
  18. What did Pusey et al (1997) find in her paper on the influence of dominance rank on the repro success of female chimps? She stated that females often forage alone and don't display obv hierarchies, so dominance mightn't be of great imp to them.
    35 year field study- high ranking females had sig higher infant survival, faster maturing daughters, more rapid production of young. High rank probably influences repro success by helping females establish and maintain access to good foraging areas rather than by sparing them stress from aggression
  19. What did Pusey et al (2013) say about chimps?
    they show slow rates of repro and raise offspring w/o direct paternal care. repro success depends critically on LT access to high quality food resources over long lifespan. chimp communities contain multiple adult males, multiple females and their offspring. because males are philopatric and jointly defend community range, whilst most females transfer to new communities pre-breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. communities are fission-fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on abundance and distribution of food.
  20. how did pusey say females avoid direct competition to varying extents in different populations
    forage alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity.
  21. pusey found that although rates of aggression were low, females competed for what
    space and access to food
  22. high rank correlated with what?
    high reproductive success
  23. high ranking females win direct contests for food and gain what
    preferential access to resource rich sites
  24. Pusey found that females are aggressive to whom?
    immigrant females, even kill newborn infants of community members
  25. the intensity of this aggression correlates with what
    population density
  26. What did Constable et al (2001) find when they collected DNA samples from 14 chimjpanzees at Gombe national park, noninvasively from shed hair and faeces, then genotyped them using 13-16 microsatellite loci.
    +ive relationship between male rank and repro success, range of male mating strategies (possessiveness, opportunistic mating and consortships) can lead to paternity across all ranks.
  27. what did constable find about inbreeding
    several adult females were at risk of breeding wwith close male relatives. most successfully avoided close inbreeding but in once case, a high ranking male mated with his mother and produced an offspring
  28. No evidence of what was found, in contrast to recent data on chimps in Cote d'Ivoire?
    no evidence of extra-group paternity was observed.
  29. Reanalysis of the data from the Cote d'Ivoire casts doubt on what
    occurrence of extra-group paternity in that study
  30. Rodriguez-Llanes et al (2009) analysed paternity data from 14 studies on male macaques from 6 spp and three lineages of the genus and found what?
    medium size, positive and sig association even after controlling for phylogeny, spatial constraints and genetic techniques. the pop of macaques was only factor to differ between studies. findings support hypothesis that male macaques obtain advantageous repro output through acquisition of high social status in their groups. even in primate groups where alt repro tactics and ltd control models may explain high proportion of repro skew observed, fitness benefits derived from social status are evident, likely to have contributed to evolution of complex social stratification found at present in these spp.
  31. what did wroblewski's 2009 study on chimps in gombe national park find when they determined paternity for 24 offspring over a 22-year period?
    priority access model generally predictive of male repro success. younger males had higher success per male than older males, low-ranking males sired more offspring than predicted. low ranking males sired offspring w younger less desirable females and by engaging in consortships more often tha high-ranking fathers. although alpha males never sired offspring w related females, inbreeding avoidance didn't completely explain success of low ranking males.
  32. whilst their work confirms that male rank typically predicts male repro success, it shows what
    other factors are also imp
  33. in what species is there a well documented relationship between male dominance rank and repro success in group living spp?
    red deer, northern elephant seals, african wild dogs
  34. what does the priority of access model predict
    how many offspring should be sired by each male based on each male's rank and 2 demographic factors: no of male competitors and no of receptive females present for each conception
  35. which studies have found support for the priority of access model?
    • Japanese macaques (soltis et al 2001)
    • mandrills (setchell et al 2005)
    • savannah baboon (alberts et al 2006)
  36. what may alter the influence of rank and explain deviations from the priority of access model?
    male coalitions, female choice and alternative male mating strategies can alter male access to females and decrease correlation between rank and repro success in primates. some females may prefer middle- or lower- ranking males. low ranking males can avoid direct competition by sneaking copulations.
  37. the degree to which these factors are important is probably contingent upon the what of the population
  38. why are chimpanzees an interesting system to investigate the applicability of the model?
    fission-fusion system, temporary subgroups with a permanent community. access to females dependent on party composition. higher ranking males can be absent. access to females can also vary across populations given differences in gregariousness and dispersal. chimp females generally disperse at sexual maturity, around 50% of females in main study community at gombe remain in natal community w related males
  39. What did Robbins 2011 find when she looked at the lifetime reproductive success of female mountain gorillas in the virunga volcanoes region.
    adult females produced an avg of 3.6+/- 2.1 surviving offspring during lifetime, growing population. the standardised variance was lower than other mammals and birds. when the most apparent source of environmental variability- poaching- was excluded, the LRS increased to 4.3 and variance dropped in half. adult lifespan was a greater source of variance in LRS than fertility or offpsring survival. females w higher LRS had sig longer adult lifespans and higher domiance ranks.
  40. what did blomquist et al 2011 find by using resampling techniques and van Tienderen's elasticity path analysis to identify rank-related differences in finite rate of increase and their demographic correlates among segments of a semi-free-ranging rhesus macaque population?
    higher ranking pop segments grew at greater rates for some portions of 40-yr study period. female members achieved these lifetime fitness differences through higher fertility and higher adult survival rates. social rank influences female primate adult survival, crucial fitness component for any long-lived slow-reproducing animal.
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Roles of dominants and subordinates in old world simians
Roles of dominants and subordinates in old world simians
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