Rodriguez-Llanes et al (2009) analysed paternity data from 14 studies on male macaques from 6 spp and three lineages of the genus and found what?
medium size, positive and sig association even after controlling for phylogeny, spatial constraints and genetic techniques. the pop of macaques was only factor to differ between studies. findings support hypothesis that male macaques obtain advantageous repro output through acquisition of high social status in their groups. even in primate groups where alt repro tactics and ltd control models may explain high proportion of repro skew observed, fitness benefits derived from social status are evident, likely to have contributed to evolution of complex social stratification found at present in these spp.