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Density
 Density is the mass per unit
 volume. Weight is directly proportional to density.

Specific Gravity
 Specific gravity is a ratio of the density of a fluid/gas to the density of water/air at a certain temperature.

Atmospheric Pressure Units
 mm Hg
 “Hg
 14.7 psia standard


Differential Pressure Units

psid
Pounds per square inch differential

psig
Pounds per square inch gage

psiv
Pounds per square inch vacuum

psi
pound per square inch

mm Hg
Millimeters of mercury at 32°F

″ Hga
Inches of mercury absolute

psia
Pounds per square inch absolute

Bernoulli's euation
 • v is the fluid flow speed at a point on a streamline,
 • g is the acceleration due to gravity,
 • z is the elevation of the point above a reference plane, with the positive zdirection pointing upward – so in the direction opposite to the gravitational acceleration,
 • p is the pressure at the chosen point, and
 • ρ is the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid.

Total Head or Energy Head
 • v is the fluid flow speed at a point on a
 streamline,
 • g is the acceleration due to gravity,
 • z is the elevation of the point above a reference plane, with the positive zdirection pointing upward – so in the direction opposite to the gravitational acceleration,
 • p is the pressure at the chosen point, and
 • ρ is the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid.





Ideal Gas Law
 • P is the pressure of the gas
 • V is the volume of the gas
 • m (n) is the amount of substance of gas (also known as number of moles)
 • R is the ideal, or universal, gas constant, equal to the product of the Boltzmann constant and the Avogadro constant.
 • T is the temperature of the gas
In SI units, P is measured in pascals, V is measured in cubic metres, n is measured in moles, and T in kelvins (273.15 kelvins = 0.00 degrees Celsius). R has the value 8.314 J·K−1·mol−1 or 0.08206 L·atm·mol−1·K−1 if using pressure in standard atmospheres (atm) instead of pascals, and volume in liters instead of cubic metres.

Pressure Definition
Pressure is the measure of the amount of force exerted by a fluid or gas per unit of area, or P=F/A.

Absolute Pressure Definition
 the sum of atmospheric and gage pressures or the absolute pressure is the atmospheric pressure minus vacuum pressure:
 Pa= Patm + Pg
 Pa= Patm  Pv

Total Pressure Definition
 the sum of static and dynamic pressures:
 Pt= Ps + Pd

