PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

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Author:
ctransam
ID:
270513
Filename:
PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
Updated:
2014-04-14 14:03:44
Tags:
Pressue INSTRUMENTATION MEASUREMENT
Folders:
Engineering
Description:
Questions regarding pressure measurements
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  1. Density
    • Density is the mass per unit
    • volume. Weight is directly proportional to density.

  2. Specific Gravity
    • Specific gravity is a ratio of the density of a fluid/gas to the density of water/air at a certain temperature.
  3. Atmospheric Pressure Units
    • mm Hg
    • “Hg
    • 14.7 psia standard
  4. Absolute Pressure Units
    • psia
    • “Hga
  5. Differential Pressure Units
    • psid
    • “H2O
    • “Hg
  6. psid
    Pounds per square inch differential
  7. psig
    Pounds per square inch gage
  8. psiv
    Pounds per square inch vacuum
  9. psi
    pound per square inch
  10. mm Hg
    Millimeters of mercury at 32°F
  11. ″ Hga
    Inches of mercury absolute
  12. psia
    Pounds per square inch absolute
  13. Bernoulli's euation
    • v is the fluid flow speed at a point on a streamline,
    • g is the acceleration due to gravity,
    • z is the elevation of the point above a reference plane, with the positive z-direction pointing upward – so in the direction opposite to the gravitational acceleration,
    • is the pressure at the chosen point, and
    • ρ is the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid.
  14. Total Head or Energy Head
    •  v is the fluid flow speed at a point on a
    • streamline,
    • • g is the acceleration due to gravity,
    • • z is the elevation of the point above a reference plane, with the positive z-direction pointing upward – so in the direction opposite to the gravitational acceleration,
    • • p is the pressure at the chosen point, and
    • • ρ is the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid.
  15. Open Vessels
  16. Closed Vessels
  17. Boyle’s Law
  18. Charle’s Law
  19. Ideal Gas Law
    • P is the pressure of the gas
    • V is the volume of the gas
    • m (n) is the amount of substance of gas (also known as number of moles)
    • R is the ideal, or universal, gas constant, equal to the product of the Boltzmann constant and the Avogadro constant.
    • T is the temperature of the gas

    In SI units, P is measured in pascals, V is measured in cubic metres, n is measured in moles, and T in kelvins (273.15 kelvins = 0.00 degrees Celsius). R has the value 8.314 J·K−1·mol−1 or 0.08206 L·atm·mol−1·K−1 if using pressure in standard atmospheres (atm) instead of pascals, and volume in liters instead of cubic metres.
  20. Pressure Definition
    Pressure is the measure of the amount of force exerted by a fluid or gas per unit of area, or P=F/A.
  21. Absolute Pressure Definition
    • the sum of atmospheric and gage pressures or the absolute pressure is the atmospheric pressure minus vacuum pressure:
    • Pa= Patm + Pg
    • Pa= Patm - Pv
  22. Total Pressure Definition
    • the sum of static and dynamic pressures:
    • Pt= Ps + Pd

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