Ecology exam I set III

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Ecology exam I set III
2014-04-22 22:21:59
Ecology I
set III for exam I
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  1. enough light for photosynthesis
  2. level plant can just survive
    light compensation
  3. towards shore in water
  4. deep/bottom of any aquatic environment
  5. open water in marine zonation
  6. bottom of benthic zone of marine
    abyssal zone
  7. 200 meters or less of marine zone
    neritic zone
  8. layering, can be by temperature, light, dissolved gases
  9. stratification changes due to changing weather leading to....
    • turnover
    • isothermal
    • seasonal
  10. stratification name for lake layers
    • epilimnion
    • thermocline
    • hypolimnion
  11. stratification layers for marine & lake zonation
    • photic zone
    • pelagic zone
    • aphotic zone
    • benthic zone
  12. stratification zonation name differences between lakes and marines
    • lakes: littoral
    • limnetic
    • profundal zone

    • marines:
    • intertidal zone
    • neritic zone
    • oceanic zone
    • abyssal zone
  13. water-full of a lot of oxygen but no nutrients for plant growth
  14. water with lots of mineral and organic nutrients. This means it has a lot of plants and algae. So there is very little oxygen in the water and other organic life (fish and insects) die.
  15. unit of area 10,000 sq meters
  16. ratio to measure how much more land is required to destroy other land. Approximately 3 times as much
    mitigation ratio
  17. standing water
    • lentic
    • lakes & wetlands
  18. flowing water
    • lotic
    • rivers and streams
  19. self feeding water
  20. water being fed by something upstream
  21. places with the highest NPP
    • tropical rain forest
    • coral reef
  22. when there's a change in food that increases mass size
    dietary shift
  23. two organisms living in close association
  24. two types of symbiosis
    • mutualism
    • commensalism
  25. the algae are dying because of higher temperatures so coral gets no O2 from algae causing the coral to die and lose their color
    coral bleaching
  26. type of algae living with coral
  27. an organism unable to tolerate a wide range of environmental influences
    • steno
    • -thermal
    • -haline
    • -phagic
  28. an organism that IS able to tolerate a wide range of environmental influences
    • eury-
    • thermal
    • haline
    • phagic
  29. degree of saltiness
  30. degree of food needed
  31. plants making their own food with a lack of light
    ex. sulfur from hydrovents
  32. #1 way for all young species to finding their way
  33. parts per billion
  34. live birth
  35. external birth
  36. egg hatch inside of mother
  37. when a young species picks up behaviors from adult/larger species
  38. the period for imprinting
    sensitive period
  39. goal orientated
    can be positive or negative
  40. migration restlessness-russian
  41. the motion of a motile organism or cell in response to the force of gravity.
  42. oriented movement in response to a current of air
  43. movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus
  44. move in an orientation with respect to a source of sound.
  45. organism moves towards or away from stimulus of light
  46. oriented movement of an organism in response to a current of fluid, especially water
  47. magnetic pathways organisms follow
    migratory corridors
  48. external or environmental cue that entrains, or synchronizes, an organism's biological rhythms to the earth's 24-hour light/dark cycle
  49. biological clock
    circadian rhythm
  50. what did the females flies choose for mates
    males sprayed with hydrocarbons from the exoskeletons of the males-pheromones
  51. term for when young are swapped and pick up traits from other parents
  52. form of learning that involves loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no information
  53. examples of habituation
    • resistance build up of repetitive stimuli
    • ie Iraq guy lack of response to bomb
  54. complex modification of behavior based on experience with the spatial structure of the environment
    spatial learning
  55. spatial learning example
    • sticklebacks in ponds use rocks to orientated themselves
    • wasps use structure to find nest
  56. spatial learning in large mouth bass in SREL
    predictive vs. reactive behavior
    using biotelemetry to locate refuge areas
    • predictive is smarter because it had a map in head of when hot water was coming
    • reactive swam downwards and died
  57. spatial learning vs learning from what they see or smell and why
    cue hierarchy
  58. internal representation of spatial relationships between objects in an animals surroundings
    cognitive maps
  59. examples of animals using cognitive maps
    Jay & nutcrackers will hide food caches with a mathematical formula
  60. another animal that uses spatial learning
    olive ridley uses magnetic fields for direction
  61. animals associate one feature of their environment with another
    associative learning
  62. type of associative learning in which an arbitrary stimulus is associated with reward or punishment
    classical conditioning
  63. Pavolv's dogs
    monarch larvae
    zebra fish and pike
    associative learning
  64. experiment with zebra fish and pike
    • zebra fish give off alarm substance when pike is nearby
    • put zebra alarm juice in tank with both pike and w/o pike
    • fish activity reaction the same
    • *classical conditioning*
    • alarm juice is arbitrary stimulus
  65. type of associative learning in which an animal learns to associate one of its behaviors with a reward or punishment
    • operant conditioning
    • also called trial-and-error learning
  66. ability of an animals nervous system to perceive, store, process and use information gathered by sensory receptors
    cognition and problem solving
  67. examples of cognition and problem solving
    • delivered milk freezes and pops open, birds peck at frozen milk
    • Bees move towards colors or patterns that has learned reward
    • chimps use tools
    • birds pull up string
  68. examples of genetic and environmental interaction in learning
    • birds singing-innate
    • other birds listen to other birds then sing songs
  69. what can happen due to genes influencing behavior?
    natural selection can result in evolution of behavioral traits
  70. type of variation thats occurring within a species or involving members of one species
    intraspecific variation
  71. example of intraspecific variation
    laboratory controlled garter snakes from the coast eat banana slugs while inland do not
  72. example of variation in aggressive behavior
    • river funnel spiders are more hesitant while desert funnel spiders are quick when prey comes
    • continues through generations
  73. experimental evidence for behavioral evolution
    • drosophila foraging behavior
    • *fruit flies taken from high and low density areas
    • *the low pop density has shorter paths=sitters
    • *high pop dense=rovers
    • 70 generations in laboratory
  74. area with lots of food and predators
    riparian habitat
  75. area with less prey and predators
    arid habitat
  76. birds used in funnel to study migratory orientation direction
  77. cost & benefit of getting food
    how much energy is used for how much food
    optimal foraging
  78. theory that views foraging behavior as a compromise between benefits of nutrition and costs of obtaining food
    optimal foraging theory
  79. Reto Zach conducted what analysis
    • cost-benefitting analysis of feeding behavior in crows
    • molluscs-whelks, drop on rocks to crack shell
  80. bluegill sunfish prey selection behavior
    • murky water
    • go after bigger prey density for more energy
    • young bluegill learning apparent size in water
    • eat more medium then large prey
  81. peace bridge building considerations
    • tern birds do not fly under bridges
    • build nests on other side
    • had to make it low enough so they can access food
  82. example of predation vs. foraging risks
    • mule deer & mountain lions
    • mule deer have learnt that eating in the open is safe bc they can see mountain lions coming
    • forest you can hear
    • forest edge predators can hide better
  83. mating types:
    • monogamous
    • promiscuous
  84. type of birds that are monogamous & monomorphic
    trumpeter swans
  85. monomorphic vs dimorphic
    sexes look the same or one sex is more showy
  86. reason for monogamous
    • raising young is energetically costly, more help with 2
    • males have higher fitness if they make sure their offspring survive
  87. 2 types of polygamous
    • polygyny
    • polyandry
  88. example of polygynous dimorphism
    • elks with racks-ornamentation
    • have to balance with optimal rack size
  89. males care more for what type of fertilization
    external because they know for surely the offspring is theirs
  90. example of a dimorphic polyandrous
  91. percent of the world that is internal vs external fertilization
    7% vs. 69%
  92. a fish that keeps its eggs in its mouth
    mouth breeder
  93. type of fish that keeps its eggs in the stomach
    gastric breeder
  94. members of one sex choose mates on the basis of certain traits
    intersexual selection
  95. experiment of intersexual selection on zebra finches
    • glued feathers to combination of parents heads(all combos)
    • females choose mates with feathers just because they were on father
    • *females make evolution of males
  96. example of intersexual selection
    healthy eye stalks on stalk-eyed flied
  97. ritualized contest that determines which competitor gains access to a resource
    agonistic behavior
  98. male competition for mates, not to kill, just to demonstrate
    • intrasexual selection
    • physiological not physical victories
  99. isopod males
    genetically distinct morphology
    • alpha-breed/owns females in low density
    • beta-higher density beta is able to mate bc alpha too busy
    • gamma-small, not noticed
  100. alternative strategies where the outcome depends on each individual's strategy and the strategy of other individuals
    game theory
  101. what species game theory depends on polymorphism and population density
    • side-blotched lizards
    • orange-large
    • blue-smaller
    • yellow-sneaky
  102. many types of the same species
  103. what can account for most altruistic social behavior
    inclusive fitness
  104. some animals behave in ways that reduce their individual fitness but increase the fitness of others
  105. examples of altruism
    • beavers slap warning tail
    • naked mole rats & bees share genetics with queen
  106. total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing offspring and helping close relatives produce offspring
    inclusive fitness
  107. who proposed a quantitative measure for predicting when natural selection would favor altruistic acts among related individuals
    Hamilton's rule and kin selection
  108. three key variables in an altruistic act
    • 1. benefit to the recipient
    • 2. cost tot the altruist
    • 3. coefficient of relatedness
  109. example of kin selection and altruism
    • warning behavior of belding ground squirrels
    • -will give alarm call only if relatives are around
  110. altruistic behavior toward unrelated individuals can be adaptive if the aided individual returns the favor in the future
    reciprocal altruism
  111. forms the roots of culture
    social learning
  112. system of information transfer through observation or teaching that influences behavior of individuals in a population
  113. what works faster then natural selection
    cultural selection
  114. individuals in population copy the mate choice of others
    mate choice copying
  115. example of mate choice copying
    • guppies
    • normally females prefer darker ones but if a male with drab colors has lots of females around him then the female wants that
    • hopes that offspring will be like as well
  116. example of social learning of alarm calls
    vervet monkeys learn to give correct calls, younger ones ignored until they master it
  117. social institution is strongly influenced by what
    cultural institution-governments, laws, religion
  118. ecto/endo
    • where organism obtains heat
    • how organism maintains heat
    • how organism gets heat
  119. how big was the oil spill in the deepwater horizon and what was the long term effect
    • 15 ppb
    • caused heart problems in Bluefin tuna
  120. behavior studies
  121. factor that's happening right now
    proximate factor
  122. factor that has a long term effect on species
    ultimate factor
  123. ultrasound vs infrasound
    • infrasound is long wavelengths so low sound-larger animals hear this like elephants
    • ultrasound is higher, shorter wavelengths/high frequency-dogs, dolphins, bats
  124. hertz
    • 1 wave per second
    • humans: 20 hrtz to 20 khertz
    • ultra is 40 khertz
  125. what causes a correlation
  126. innate, always happens and goes to completion
    Fixed Action Plan
  127. Experiment with sticklebacks
    • Tinbergen introduced objects with red ventrals, males attacked
    • Fixed Action Plan
  128. what did the hatchling turtles respond too for olive ridley and leatherbacks?
    • olive ridley was magnetic geotaxis
    • leatherbacks were phonotaxis