Contains nerve centers associated with sensory functions and is responsible for sensations and perceptions; controls motor functions, carries on higher mental functions like memory, and provides characteristics such as personality.
The largest part of the brain that consists of two hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum; controls higher brain functions such as memory, reasoning, and intelligence, initiates muscular movements, and interprets sensory impulses.
A bridge of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres of the cerebrum.
Masses of gray matter within the cerebral hemispheres that are relay stations for motor impulses from the cerebral cortex; help coordinate voluntary movement.
Includes the thalamus and hypothalamus; thalamus is a relay station for sensory impulses ascending from other parts of the nervous system; hypothalamus helps maintain homeostasis by regulating visceral activities and linking the nervous and endocrine systems.
Connects the cerebrum to the spinal cord; consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.
Part of the brainstem that joins the spinal cord to higher regions of the brain; contains reflex centers that move the eyes and head, and maintains posture.
A bulge on the underside of the brainstem that relays impulses between the medulla oblongata and cerebrum, and helps regulate breathing.
An enlarged continuation of the spinal cord that extends from the foramen magnum to the pons that conducts ascending and descending impulses between the brain and spinal cord, and has cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory control centers.
What are the 3 vital visceral activities found in the medulla oblongata?
1) Cardiac 2) Vasomotor 3) Respiratory
A large mass of tissue that includes two hemispheres connected by the vermis; communicates with other parts of the CNS by tracts, integrates sensory info about the position of body parts, coordinates muscle activities and maintains posture.
Area of the cerebral cortex in the frontal lobe just in front of the central sulcus; involved with the control of voluntary muscles.
Primary Motor Area or Motor Cortex
Area of the cerebral cortex in the parietal lobe just behind the central sulcus; involved with cutaneous and other senses.
Cells located in the primary motor areas that send impulses down the brainstem and into the spinal cord on the corticospinal tracts to move voluntary muscles.
Motor speech area of the brain that generates complex muscular actions of the mouth, tongue, and larynx.
Sensory speech area of the brain important for understanding and formulating written and spoken language.
Region where the occipital, parietal, and temporal lobes meet; and the sensory information from all three of these association areas are processed.
General Interpretive Area
Region above the motor speech area containing the motor cortex that controls voluntary movements of the eyes and eyelids.
Frontal Eye Field
List the 5 lobes of the cerebral hemispheres.
1) Frontal 2) Parietal 3) Temporal 4) Occipital 5) Insula
What cerebral lobe has association areas that carry higher intellectual processes; has motor areas that control voluntary movements of muscles.
What cerebral lobe has association areas that work in understanding speech and using words to express oneself; sensory areas provide sensations of temperature, touch, pressure, and pain in the skin.
What cerebral lobe has association areas that interpret sensory experiences and remember sensory patters like visual scenes and music; sensory areas are responsible for hearing.
What cerebral lobe has association areas that combine visual images with other sensory experiences; sensory areas are responsible for vision.
A thin layer of gray matter that is the outermost portion of the cerebrum and contains nearly 75% of all the neuron cell bodies in nervous system.
Consists of nerves that branch from the CNS and can be subdivided into somatic and autonomous nervous systems.
Peripheral Nervous System
Division of the PNS that consists of the cranial and spinal nerve fibers that connect the CNS to the skin and skeletal muscles.
Somatic Nervous System
Division of the PNS that consists of the cranial and spinal nerve fibers that connect the CNS to viscera and various glands; functions without conscious effort and has 2 subdivisions: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic.
Autonomous Nervous System
What are the two divisions of the autonomous nervous system?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
This division of the autonomous nervous system prepares the body for stressful or emergency situations.
This division of the autonomous nervous system is most active during ordinary, restful conditions.
List the steps of a motor pathway in the autonomic system (in order)
A preganglionic neuron synapses with a postganglionic neuron, which synapses with an effector
The preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions secrete what?
Neurons which secrete acetylcholine are called what?
Most sympathetic postganglionic fibers secrete what?
Neurons which secrete norepinephrine are called what?
What are the two types of cholinergic receptors?
Muscarinic and Nicotinic
This cholinergic receptor is located in membranes of effector cells at the ends of all postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers and at the ends of cholinergic sympathetic fibers; responses from it are excitatory and slow.
This cholinergic receptor is located in synapses between the preganglionic and postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways; responses from it are excitatory and fast.
What are the two major types of adrenergic receptors?
Alpha and Beta
What decomposes acetylcholine?
Consists of connective tissue surrounding bundles of nerve fibers.
Nerves that originate from the brain and communicate with other body parts.