Chapter 12

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Chapter 12
2014-04-14 18:24:47
12 electricity
electricity,chapter 12
chapter 12 electricity glossary terms, Ms. Day's class
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  1. Direct current (DC)
    Current that travels in one direction
  2. Alternating current (AC)
    electrons move back and forth
  3. Transformer
    An electrical device that changes the size of potential difference of alternating current
  4. Circuit breaker
    A safety device that is placed in series with other circuits, which lead to appliances and outlets
  5. Fuse
    A safety device that is found in older buildings and some appliances; like a circuit breaker, it is placed in series with other circuits, which lead to appliances and outlets
  6. Electrical power
    • The rate at which an appliance uses electrical energy measured in watts (W) or kilowatts (kW)
    • -1 kW = 1000 W
  7. Watt (W)
    A unit of measurement that measures potential difference or electrical energy
  8. Kilowatt (kW)
    1 kW = 1000 W
  9. Electrical energy
    The energy that is used by an appliance at a given setting measured in kilowatt-hours (kW.h)
  10. Kilowatt-hour (kW∙h)
    • (kw)      (h)
    • E=P     x   Δt
    •    Power  Time
  11. EnerGuide label
    A label that gives details about how much energy an appliance uses in one year of normal use
  12. Smart meter
    A meter that records the total electrical energy used hour by hour and sends this information to the utility company automatically
  13. Time of use pricing
    • A system of pricing in which the cost of each kW.h of energy used is differnt at differnt times of the day.
    • - It is broken down into off-peak, mid-peak, and on-peak times for pricing
  14. Phantom load
    The electricity that is consumed by an appliance or device when it is turned off

    • - TV's, clock displays, external power adaptors require phantom load
    • - Easiest way to prevent a phantom load is to unplug an appliance
  15. Efficiency
    The ratio of useful energy output to total energy input expressed as a percentage

    -Energy input is its power (kW) multiplied by the time (s) it is turned on
  16. Base load
    The continues minimum demand for electrical power

    • The minimum amount of electrical power needed in Ontario is about 12 000 MW
    • 1 MW = 1 megawatt = 106 W
  17. Hydroelectric power generation
    It is used to generate power for peak loads, and base loads.
  18. Intermediate load
    A demand for electricity that is greater than the base load. It is met by burning coal and natural gas.
  19. Peak load
    The greatest demand for electricity, which is met by using hydroelectric power, and natural; gas.
  20. Renewable energy source
    A source of energy that can be replaced in a relatively short period of time
  21. Non-renewable energy source
    A source of energy that cannot be replaced as quickly as it is used
  22. Solar energy
    • -free fuel
    • -little negative impact on the environment
    • -not very concentrated
    • -expensive
  23. Photovoltaic effect
    The photovoltaic effect is the creation of voltage or electric current in a material upon exposure to light.
  24. Biomass energy
    • less acid rain
    • no-heavy metals
    • reduction of CO2 and sulfur emissions
    • not a large supply of biomass