Genetically Modified Organisms

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Author:
camturnbull
ID:
270564
Filename:
Genetically Modified Organisms
Updated:
2014-04-14 19:07:50
Tags:
Biology GMO camturnbull
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Description:
AQA BIOL5 GMOs
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  1. Why is it more beneficial to insert genes from other species into animal nuclei rather than into bacteria?
    • Prokaryotes lack the ability to remove introns from the pre-mRNA produced by some  eukaryotic genes 
    • Prokaryotes also lack the Golgi apparatus used to modify proteins
  2. Describe stage 1 of alpha-t-antitripsin insertion into a sheep
    Mature eggs are removed from the sheep's ovary
  3. Describe stage 2 of alpha-t-antitripsin insertion into a sheep
    The eggs are fertilised artificially
  4. Describe stage 3 of alpha-t-antitripsin insertion into a sheep
    • The AAT gene is cut out using restriction enzymes and fused, using ligase, to a sheep promoter 
    • The promoter controls milk production and is known as a fusion gene
  5. Describe stage 4 of alpha-t-antitripsin insertion into a sheep
    • A plasmid containing a fusion gene is injected into the fertilised egg using a micropipette 
    • This is incorporated into a chromosome in the egg nucleus
  6. Describe stage 5 of alpha-t-antitripsin insertion into a sheep
    The embryo develops into the 16 cell stage
  7. Describe stage 6 of alpha-t-antitripsin insertion into a sheep
    The embryo is inserted into the uterus of a ewe which becomes the surrogate mother
  8. Describe stage 7 of alpha-t-antitripsin insertion into a sheep
    The gene is expressed by the sheep cells and the protein appears in the sheep's milk
  9. What is AAT used for?
    To treat sufferers of emphysema and cystic fibrosis by inhibiting the enzyme elastase which breaks down the walls of the alveoli, causing lung disease
  10. State 2 advantages of genetically modified animals
    • The protein is found in milk so it is easy and cheap to extract 
    • All cells, including the gamete producing cell contain the gene so it can be passed to offspring in gametes
  11. State 2 disadvantages of genetically modified animals
    • The side effects of inserting genes into uncle are unknown, important genes on the chromosome could be deactivated
    • Many embryos are killed in developmental stages
  12. How might scientists grant plants herbicide resistance?
    • The genes for resistance are incorporated into their chromosomes
    • Tissue culture is used to grow whole plants with the foreign gene in all cells
  13. State one advantage of genetically modified plants
    • Herbicide can be applied to crops to kill weeds but leave the crops unharmed 
    • This will increase yields of crops and produce more food for a growing population
  14. State 3 disadvantages of genetically modified plants
    • Herbicide resistant genes could be transferred into weed species leading to herbicide resistant weeds 
    • Long term health effects of these gene products on human health are unknown 
    • Increased herbicide use will kill native species of plant and reduce biodiversity

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