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  1. What is a 'plate'?
    A section of the earth's crust
  2. What is a plate margin?
    The boundary where two plates meet
  3. What is the earth's crust?
    The outer layer of the earth
  4. What is the mantle?
    The dense mostly solid layer between the outer core and the crust
  5. What is convection current?
    The circular currents of heat in the mantle
  6. Is oceanic crust or Continental crust thicker?
    Continental crust is thicker. The thickest point is around 65km thick.
  7. If two margins are pulling apart is that constructive or destructive?
    That is a constructive margin.
  8. If two margins are pushing together is that a constructive or a destructive margin?
    Destructive margin
  9. Name the six major tectonic plates on the earth
    • Pacific plate
    • North American plate
    • South American plate
    • African plate
    • Eurasian plate
    • Indo-Australian plate
  10. What are sub-marine explosions?
    Volcanic eruptions that occur under the sea and will eventually build up to form islands eg Iceland
  11. What is a conservative plate margin?
    • Two plates being forced to slide past each other.
    • Earthquakes occur where the plates 'stick' and friction is built up until it is suddenly released
  12. What are fold mountains?
    Large mountain ranges where rock layers have been crumpled as they have been forced together
  13. What are ocean trenches?
    Deep sections of the ocean, usually where an oceanic plate is sinking below the continental plate
  14. What is the MEDC case study for fold mountains?
    The alps, which form a natural boundary between Italy and neighbouring countries (such as France)
  15. What is transhumance?
    The act of taking livestock to higher pastures during the summer months (happens on the alps)
  16. Where can a destructive plate boundary be found?
    Where a continental plate meets an oceanic plate
  17. Give an example of a conservative plate boundary
    The San Andreas Fault in California
  18. Give an example of a constructive plate boundary
    The mid Atlantic ridge between the North American and Eurasian plates
  19. How have the Himalayas been formed?
    By the Indo-Australian plate colliding with the Eurasian plate.
  20. What is the case study for fold mountains in an LEDC?
    • The Himalayas
    • (as the specification says only one example is needed this one is the best one to use and should be used.)
  21. How many people live on the Himalayas?
    At least 29 million (the mountains cover over 90% of Nepal)
  22. In which fold mountains can Mount Everest be found?
    The Himalayas. The mountain itself is in Nepal, and the longest staying tourists travel there for Everest
  23. What percentage of Nepalese work is farming?
  24. What are subsistence farmers?
    Farmers who only grow enough to feed themselves and their family
  25. What things are needed in order to generate Hydroelectric power?
    • Heavy rainfall
    • A constant supply of water
    • A dam
  26. What is magma?
    Molten rock, gases and water held within a volcano
  27. What is lava?
    Magma that has been emitted from a volcano and the superheated steam and gases have escaped
  28. What is a dike?
    The vertical intrusion within a volcano other than the main vent
  29. What is a sill?
    The horizontal intrusion of magma within a volcano
  30. Name four gases are released when a volcano explodes
    • Water
    • Carbon dioxide
    • Sulphur dioxide
    • Hydrogen chloride
    • (These are just a few)
  31. What is a volcanic vent?
    An opening allowing the passage of air
  32. What is an ash cloud?
    The powdery residue top left after burning
  33. What is a volcano's flank?
    The side of the volcano
  34. What is a volcanic crater?
    The mouth of a volcano
  35. What is a volcanic summit?
    The volcano's highest point
  36. What is a volcanic throat?
    The entrance of a volcano
  37. Are shield volcanoes found at constructive or destructive plate margins?
    Constructive (they rise up as the plates are pulled apart)
  38. Are composure cone volcanoes found at constructive or destructive plate margins?
    Destructive (these volcanoes are a lot taller as the plates are pushing together)
  39. What are the characteristics of a composite cone volcano?
    • Talk cone
    • Narrow base
    • Steep sides
    • Irregular dormant periods
  40. Give an example of a composite cone volcano
    Etna, Sicily
  41. What are the characteristics of a shield volcano?
    • Wide base
    • Gentle slopes
    • Made of lava only
    • Frequent eruptions
  42. Give an example of a shield volcano
    Hekla in Iceland
  43. Is it composite or shield volcanoes that have more violent explosions?
    Composite volcanoes have more violent explosions
  44. What factors effect the impact of a volcanic eruption?
    • Population in nearby area
    • How prepared people are for an eruption
    • How aware people are that an explosion will happen
    • Type of magma
    • LEDC or MEDC
  45. What is the case study for a volcanic eruption?
    Mount Nyiragongo in the Democratic republic of Congo
  46. When did mount Nyiragongo explode?
    January 17th 2002
  47. How many villages were destroyed when mount Nyiragongo exploded?
  48. Where are the majority of ocean wenches found?
    Around the sides of the Pacific Ocean
  49. What physical factors make it difficult for people to live on fold mountains?
    • Climate - the higher you go the colder and wetter it gets (more snow as well)
    • Accessibly - no transport such as roads or railway, dangerous to travel because of frequent rock fall
    • Relief - the land is high and steep, little flat land for farming or building settlements
    • Soil - typically stony, thin and infertile
  50. What powers the movement of tectonic plates?
    Heat from within the core of the earth
  51. What are super volcanoes?
    Super volcanoes are much larger volcanoes which would have devastating global consequences if one were to erupt. The location of all super volcanoes is unknown.
  52. What do super-volcanoes cause?
    • Depression of rock
    • Rising magma contain gases which build up (causing land to be pushed up)
  53. What do tiltmeters do?
    Identify small, subtle changes in landscape
  54. What do GPS systems do?
    Use satellites to detect movement as little as 1mm
  55. How can photography be used to monitor volcanoes?
    Cameras can be places on the edge of craters and photograph at regular intervals to see changes
  56. What do seismograms do?
    Pick up movement in the ground
  57. What is an example of a super volcano?
    • Yellowstone, USA
    • Which last erupted 630,000 years ago
  58. What is a caldera?
    The depression of the super volcano making the collapsed magma chamber
  59. What are fissures?
    Extended openings along a line of weakness that allow magma to escape
  60. What is geothermal water?
    Water that has been heated beneath the ground that comes to the surface in a variety of ways (such as steam)
  61. What is a geyser?
    A geothermal fissure in which water erupts into the air under pressure
  62. In which hemisphere are super volcanos generally found in?
Card Set:
2014-04-15 14:05:38

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