GEOGRAPHY DEVELOPMENT GAP
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What does GDP stand for?
Gross Domestic product
What is birth rate?
The number of live births per 1000 per year
What is death rate?
The number of deaths per 1000 per year
What is natural increase?
Birth rate-death rate resulting in a positive number
What is HDI?
A development indicator that combines GNP, life expectancy and literacy rate of a country. Measured on a scale of 0-1
Why is HDI a more accurate representation of the development of a country?
HDI combines GNP, life expectancy and literacy rate whereas other measurements of development do not
Do MEDCs have a higher or lower birth rate than LEDCs?
Lower, meaning that they also have a slower natural increase
Do MEDCs or LEDCs have a lower infant mortality rate?
What is the name of the imaginary line that divides the developed north and the undeveloped south?
Name an anomaly of the North South divide
How is GDP calculated?
- By adding the total value of goods and services produced in a country in a year and dividing that by the total number of people in the country
- Total income
- Total population
What is a fault with HDI?
It is difficult to know how the different indicators weigh up against each other
What does birth rate not show you?
Male/female ratio, culture of the country
What is IMR?
Infant Mortality Rate. The number of live births per 1000 per year who die before their first birthday
What does the number of people per doctor show?
The wealth+ education of a country, also the population of that country
Do MEDCs have a high number of people per doctor or a low number
A low number (compared to LEDCs)
What does the number of people per doctor not show?
- The standard of medical care given
- Cultural issues
What does life expectancy show?
The health of a nation, hints at the environment they may live in
What does life expectancy not show?
The quality of life that people may be living at
What physical factors can make development inequality worse?
- >whether the country is landlocked (many in Africa are)
- >climate related disease (sick people cannot improve their quality of life easily)
- >drought (can limit and destroy what has already been created in terms of development)
What economic factors can make global development inequality worse?
- >low life expectancy (not a lot of time to develop and expand economically)
- >war, which Costs a lot (eg Sierra Leone)
- >global trade policies (which only favour MEDCs)
Why do many people not invest in Africa?
- > banks want political stability
- > good infrastructure (eg roads) need to be in place and often aren't
- > a reliable electrical supply must be available
- > an educated workforce is necessary
What environmental factors can make global development inequality worse?
- > farmers are unlikely to care about the rainforest they are cutting down if it means that they can feed their families
- > wildlife has been sacrificed to poachers when they could have provided tourism
- > lack of funds to protect and develop environmental resources
What social factors can make global development inequality worse?
- -WATER QUALITY (disease carried in water debilitates people from making development)
- -RELIABILITY OF WATER SUPPLY (unreliable supplies limit crop yields)
- -EDUCATION (difficult to fund if underdeveloped)
- -HEALTH (poorer countries cannot maintain a constant health supply meaning many will become ill)
According to the UN, what should sustainable development do?
"... Meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs"
What two things should sustainable development lead to?
- -an improved quality of life
- -an improved standard of living
How might sustainable development be achieved? (3 things)
- -encouraging economic development at a pace the country can afford
- -by developing technology that is appropriate to the skills of local people
- -by using natural resources without harming the environment
What is sustainable development?
Meeting the needs of the current generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
Give an example of a small scale aid project that has helped to improve the lives of people in an LEDC
- The Grameen Bank in Bangladesh has helped people by lending micro loans to those who would be turned away by other banks.
- It has helped over 7 million people, and women have particularly benefited as they can set up their own businesses
- 99% of loans are repaid
What is the enabling approach?
The poorest people are taught to cope and improve their condition allowing for them to move up in life by themselves
What is afforestation?
The conversion of forest to commercial land
Give an example of a scheme where an enabling approach to create a sustainable development
Grameen bank and phones
What are loans?
Sums of Monet that at some time in the future have to be paid back with interest
Give an example of a country that has successfully been able to use loans to its advantage
- Here factories have been built and made a profit
What is aid?
- Gifts of money, goods, food, machinery, technology or trained workers and is designed to raise the standards of living
- Aid in its truest form doesn't need to be repaid, but countries do usually expect something in return for aid
What is debt relief?
Forgiving a debt in part or in total (eg writing off a debt)
What is the benefit for debtor countries when their debt is paid of?
They can begin to improve the quality of life for their citizens
What is a conservation swap?
An agreement whereby a proportion of a country's debts are written off in exchange for a promise by the debtor country to undertake environmental conservation projects
How many countries took part in conservation swaps between 1987-2001?
What is fair trade?
An international movement ensuring that producers in poor countries get a fair deal.
What do farmers who are part of the fair trade scheme get?
They receive a minimum guaranteed price for their crop and long term contracts
How many people have benefited from the FairTrade scheme?
7 million farmers and their families
What can long term aid be invested in?
- Building facilities such as schools and hospitals
- Invest in industry
What can short term aid be invested in?
- Save lives of people in danger
- Help with a country's stabilisation
After the recession, many prices dropped. What was the effect of this?
- Any trade wealthier countries were doing with poorer countries went down
- The poorer countries will receive less for their exports and may go further into debt
What is multilateral aid?
Countries at further stages of development give money to international organisations (such as the world bank or the UN) which is then redistributed to development projects in countries at a lesser stage of development
What is bilateral aid?
Aid given by one country to another. It may include trade and business agreements tied to the aid
What is the case study for debt, trade and aid?
Ecuador with the bananas
When was the EU established?
What do all countries in the EU have?
- A life expectancy of over 70 years
- A HDI that puts them in the top 60 in the world
How many member states are there in the EU?
28 (eg United Kingdom, Spain, Germany, Bulgaria)
What is the EU designed to do?
- *ensure that no one country can dominate others
- * give trade benefits within a group of countries (protect through the he of tariffs)
- * allow free movement of people between member states
How much of the global GDP does the EU account for?
During the period of 2014-2020, how much will the EU invest in Europe's regions?
When did the United Kingdom join the EU?
When did Bulgaria join the EU?
What is the population of Bulgaria?
Approx 7.6 million
Where does 3/4 of Bulgarian energy come from?
Nuclear and coal power
Why is there a high level of unemployment in Bulgaria?
Because industries are underdeveloped
What is an example of a large scale development project?
Cahora Bassa dam (in Mozambique)
How much of Mozambique's population have direct access to electricity?
Where is most of the Cahora Bassa dam's energy sold to?
How much energy could the Cahora Bassa dam generate?
Enough to provide all of Mozambique (the country where it is located) with power for the foreseeable future.
Give an example of a medium scale development project
Who are ActionAid?
A UK charity that works with local communities in the developing world
What are the six areas that ActionAid aim to help bring relief to?
- Women's rights
- Education for all
- Security for all
- Good government (stable)
How do donors work in terms of ActionAid?
A donor is someone who sponsors projects or children by sending them money or aid. This is a successful method as it increases the life chances of an individual and gives the donor a feel good factor.
What is am important aspect of ActionAid's work?
Give an example of a small scale aid project
Community youth empowerment programme, Uganda
What is the Student partnership worldwide (SPW)?
A UK organisation that places gap year students in development projects in countries such as Uganda.
What does student partnership worldwide (SPW) aim to do when working with school pupils and farmers?
- Raise awareness of aids risk and reduce infections
- Improve environmental health knowledge (such as how to manage waste)
- Teach energy conservation methods
- Promote sustainable organic farming ideas
Give an example of where the student partnership worldwide (SPW) has helped a community
In Kebager village, the three natural springs were polluted. SPW students constructed a water tank that kept pollution out. The water was not exposed and therefor could not become polluted
What are quotas?
Precise limits on the quantity of goods that can be imported
What are trading groups?
Countries that have grouped together to increase the amount they trade between the and the value of their trade
Name a trading group
- European Union (EU)
- North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
- (Either one is fine)
What is the benefit of trading groups?
Member countries can cut out the tariffs in place between them - making goods cheaper
What is 'free trade'?
When countries don't discourage or restrict the movement of goods with tariffs and quotas
What is the World Trade Organisation?
An organisation that deals with the rules of global trade and aims to make trade easier and get rid of anything hindering it
Which continent has the greatest proportion of people living in extreme poverty?
With 32% in extreme poverty the answer is Africa
Give the example of top down aid
How has Ethiopia developed so much in recent years?
Bi lateral aid and commodities exchange
Why does an LEDC need to specialise in a commodity not grown in MEDCs?
MEDCs are likely to want to trade with the LEDC in order to get the commodity (for example Ethiopia receives trade money for coffee beans) and this will increase the development of the country as there will be more money in the economy.
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