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What is the name of the anti-Japanese resistance?
Who declared Vietnamese independence after having gained control of most of the country in 1945?
The Viet Minh
Whose control is Indochina under in 1945, and were they happy about it?
They were under the control of Japan and they were treated badly by them
Do communist china support the Vietminh?
Yes they do
Where was the 1954 peace conference held?
In which year did Vietnam divide into North and south?
Why did the USA prevent an election from happening in South Vietnam in 1954?
They feared that communists would win
Who was Ngo Dinh Diem?
The leader of the Republic South Vietnam
Which religion were the majority of the people in South Vietnam a part of?
- Ngo Dinh Diem hated Buddhism, he was the country's leader
In which year did the Vietcong movement begin?
In which year did Kennedy send military out to fight the he Vietcong?
What was the strategic hamlet programme?
Moving peasant villages from VietCong controlled areas to areas controlled by the South Vietnamese government. Americans supplied building materials, money and food for villagers to build new and improved farms and homes
In which year was Ngo Dinh Diem overthrown?
How many US troops were in Vietnam by 1964?
Who was Kennedy's successor after his assassination in 1963, what was he more prepared to do than Kennedy?
Lyndon Johnson. He was more prepared to commit the USA to a fill scale conflict to prevent the domino effect of communism
In which year did North Vietnamese patrol boats open fire on US ships in the Gulf of Tonkin?
What was the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution?
An agreement to ensure that the USA could engage in a full scale war if necessary
In which year did the Vietnamese war begin?
1965 when US combat troops came ashore at Da Nang.
What was the official name of the Vietcong?
National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam
What were the main three tactics used by the US against the Vietcong?
- -aerial bombardment
- -search and destroy
- -chemical weapons
Why did the USA use aerial bombardment?
To attack the Vietcong from above and avoid danger on the ground
Why did the US use search and destroy against the Vietcong?
To deny the Vietcong support in villages
How would search and destroy work?
US troops would descend on a village and destroy the VietCong there
Why was it difficult for the US troops to identify Vietcong soldiers during search and destroy missions?
The Vietcong had no uniform and were difficult to identify (they blended in with innocent peasants)
What chemical weapons did the US troops use?
Agent Orange and napalm gas
How many litres of Agent Orange were used during the Vietnamese war on jungle where the Vietcong might have been hiding?
82 million litres
What would the chemical Agent Orange do?
Burn skin through to the bone
What was a problem with using chemical weapons in warfare for the US?
The gas could also killed their own soldiers
How much did it cost to kill one VietCong fighter?
$400,000 (including 75 bombs and 400 artillery shells)
What was operation Rolling Thunder?
Dropping bombs on military and industrial targets in North Vietnam
When was operation Rolling Thunder launched?
During search and destroy operations, what happened to many US soldiers?
- They walked into traps and were killed/injured
- For every VietCong weapon captured by search and destroy, what was the body count? (During search and destroy raids)
- The body count was six
What effect did search and destroy have on Vietnamese peasants?
It pushed them towards supporting the VietCong
Name three tactics used by the VietCong during the Vietnam war
- Bouncing Betty bombs
- Terror campaigns
Why did the Vietcong try to get as close as possible to the US troops?
So that the US could not drop bombs on them without risking the lives of their own soldiers
What were 51% of US casualties caused by?
Small arms fire in Vietcong ambush attacks
What was the purpose of a Vietcong pit?
- To kill US soldiers
- They would work by one soldier falling in, and then the others trying to help him get out and then the Vietcong would ambush them all. The guy who fell in often died in the pit from blood loss
Why did the guerrilla fighters have the advantage over the US troops?
- -they knew the land
- -they had more passion for the cause they were fighting
- -they could hide more easily within villages etc
What was the aim of the guerrilla tactics?
To wear down the enemy and their morale. To pursue when the enemy retreats
What was the Bouncing Betty Land mine?
A mine that when stepped on by the US troops would jump up to the groin area and explode. They were designed to castrate the US soldiers so they would die from blood loss or shock.
Who were VietCong terror campaigns against?
Police, tax collectors, teachers etc
How many civilians did the VietCong kill in terror campaigns between 1966-1971?
For every 300 US soldiers killed, how many VietCong fighters were killed?
Where did the VietCong get their supplies from?
What were 11% of injuries to US soldiers caused by?
In 1965, how many soldiers did the North Vietnamese Army and the VietCong have?
Who were the NVA?
North Vietnamese Army
Approximately how many US men fought in the Vietnam war?
How long did the USA think the Vietnam war would last for?
How were men chosen to go to fight in Vietnam?
They would put their names forward and then be pulled out randomly (like a lottery draw)
How were American soldiers transported from one place to another?
What was the kill ratio of VietCong to US soldiers?
What was 1966 also known as?
- The year of escalation
- (Number of troops the US sent in went up exponentially)
What were the conditions that the US soldiers were fighting in?
- 100% humidity
- Guerrilla tactics
- Poisonous snakes
During the first nine months of 1967, how many US soldiers were killed?
- (More than the previous five years combined)
What was the average combat time for a soldier in Vietnam?
- 240 days
- (Just enough time for a soldier to become experienced and then have to leave, only to be replaced by inexperienced soldiers)
In 1965 80% of the US people supported the war. In 1967, what percentage supported the war?
What is the estimated cost of the Vietnam war?
- $110 billion
- (Excluding pensions that are still being given now)
How many helicopters were destroyed in the Vietnam war?
How many acres of Vietnamese forest were destroyed?
4 million acres
How many tonnes of napalm gas was used in the Vietnam war?