Card Set Information
natural hazards disasters
GEOL 1301 Major Review Topics for Exam III
What are the differences between a cyclone and an anticyclone?
low vs high pressure
ocean vs land
counter-clockwise circulation vs clockwise in Northern hemisphere
spring vs winter
How, where and under what conditions to extratropical cyclones form?
form along weather fronts over land or ocean in mid-latitudes
uses energy from contrasting temperatures of air masses
What are the hazards associated with extratropical cyclones?
Where and how does a tropical cyclone form?
from disorganized low pressure systems (troughs)
over tropical ocean away from the equator
What are cyclones called in areas of the world?
hurricanes - atlantic
typhoons - everywhere else
What environmental conditions are needed for a hurricane to form/live?
warm water 80 degree F and 150 ft deep
What are the structures of a cyclone
: spiraling lines of thunderstorms with some "towers" extending to top of troposphere
: circular area of calm winds, lowest atmospheric pressure
: most intense winds and rains, sometimes inner and outer eyewall
How is a tropical storm defined?
winds > 39 mph, low pressure area
How is a hurricane defined?
winds > 74 mph
5 categories based on wind speed intensity
What are the stages in a life cycle of a tropical cyclone?
What are the common tracks these storms follow in the Atlantic Ocean and what land areas are in danger?
inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) west of Africa in Atlantic
tracks north out into Atlantic or West into Gulf of Mexico
Haiti, Cuba, Florida, Louisiana, Carolinas
What are some hurricane hazards?
massive erosion and deposition
loss of infrastructure
What factors affect storm surge height?
speed of storm
profile of seaflore
time of day
barrier islands and wetlands to protect cities, followed by levees and floodwalls
What caused Hurricane Katrina to be so devastating and how could this have been avoided?
damming of rivers lessened needed deposition for barrier islands and wetlands
failure in levees and floodwalls
failure in FEMA regarding communication and leadership
education and awareness of the hazard
What is importance of coastal wetlands?
1 mile of wetlands reduces storm surge by 1 foot
How can you mitigate for hurricane hazards?
prep for flooding & high winds
evacuate or take shelter
prep for 3+ days without source of food, water, or power
Engineering - elevated structures, etc.
Insurance - not working well presently, becoming costly
Zoning - don't build certain structures on a coast at risk
What should individuals do to prepare for a large hurricane
flashlight, fire extinguisher, NOAA, cash, raingear, meds, water purification, maps
concentrated winds at high altitudes (troposphere)
polar and subtropical
closed circulation on tropical disturbance
winds > 39 mph
winds > 74 mph
inter-tropical convergence zone
area encircling earth near equator where trade winds converge causing erratic weather patterns
known to sailors as the doldrums
When is hurricane season in the US
July - November
abnormal rise in sea level along a coast, due to high winds in ocean literally pushing the water towards the coast
a lowland area that is saturated with moisture
federal emergency management agency