child D psych 4

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kleaf
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child D psych 4
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2014-05-14 23:29:48
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  1. Development of peer relationships
    • Changes over time.
    • In infancy and toddler years, social interaction increases with age.
    • In preschool years there is an increase in complex, reciprocal peer interaction.
    • in adolescence there is a sharp increase in time spent with peers.
  2. Types of play (4)
    • Solitary: by yourself
    • Parallel: side by side but little interaction
    • Associative: actively interact but don't work together
    • Cooperative: playing and working together
  3. sociometric peer acceptance categories
    • Popular: many positive
    • Rejected: many negative 
    • Controversial: many positive & many negative.
    • Neglected: not liked or disliked
    • Average: average # of both positive & negative.
  4. Outcomes of peer rejection
    • More lonely
    • More socially anxious
    • At greater risk for:
    • ~Dropping out of school, truancy.
    • ~depression & low self-esteem.
  5. Social skills training study (Oden and Fisher)
    • Coaching condition: taught social skills.
    • Peer-pairing condition: peer interaction but no training
    • Control condition:Only solitary games
    • RESULTS
    • 4 months: coached, solitary, peer pairing
    • 1 year: coached, peer pairing, solitary
  6. Friendships and peer acceptance
    • Friendship does not equal peer acceptance.
    • 50% of low accepted children also have a reciprocal best friend.
  7. Defining adolescence
    • difficult to define. All ways to define have different onsets and different ends. Different among children.
    • Biological,Emotional,Cognitive,Social,Legal,Crchronological,Cultural,Educational
    • The beginning: the onset of puberty
    • The end: assuming adult roles
  8. Conflict with parents
    • mundane issues, not major issues
    • Curfews, leisure time activities, clothing, cleanliness of their rooms
    • Parents see it as an issue of right and wrong
    • Adolescence see it as an issue of personal choice
  9. statuses of identity (4)
    • ~Identity achievement
    •  Explored identity and decision
    • ~Identity moratorium
    • Explored identity and no decision yet
    • ~Identity foreclosure
    • Decision without exploration
    • ~Identity diffusion
    • No exploration and no decision
  10. Consequences of identity statuses
    • ~Achievement and moratorium
    • Healthy/adaptive: high self-esteem, critical thinkers, use family as “secure base”        ~Foreclosure  
    • Unhealthy: inflexible, defensive, warm parents,but too little separation.  
    • Increased risk for later “crisis”?     
    • ~Diffusion
    • Most unhealthy: Feel hopeless,
    • little control, uninvolved parents
  11. popular children characteristics vs rejected kid characteristic
    • -cooperative and social
    • -not inappropriate, nor agressive
    • ~vice versa
  12. contraversal characteristic
    • prosocial
    • aggresive
  13. neglected kid characteristic
    not aggressive and played by them selves
  14. clique
    small group within a group with common activities and friendship
  15. girls vs. boys that are in cliques
    girls are more likely to be in cliques and guys to be isolates
  16. growing up in cliques
    people who originally were in a clique can move away from that clique but will still be a part of a clique
  17. crowds
    large groups with a reputation
  18. 3 purposes of a crowd
    • -gives individual a purpose in school structure
    • -push adolescent with peers or not
    • - bully/ and rewarded like groups
  19. crowds change
    • growing different cognitive skills
    • more abstract
    • enhance status
    • freedom to change a crowd
  20. nerd transformation study
    studied nerds becoming more popular
  21. 1)high school peer structure of nerd study
    2) self assured physical development and socal development of nerd study
    3) understand the social hierarchy and cognition
    • 1)more different and permeable options
    • more sociable and accepted people
    • 2) more positive and self aware and sociable
    • 3) more knowledgeable and placed in a world felt right
  22. Family systems theory
    • Complex: bi-directional interactions (parents interact with children and children interact with parents.)
    • Dynamic: Changing (normative: development, expected: new siblings, unexpected: deaths, divorce)
    • Embedded: different systems affect the child
  23. Brofenbrenner’s Ecological Model
    (embedded systems)
    • o Microsystem:
    • immediate environment
    • o Mesosystem:
    • connections between microsystems
    • o Exosystem:
    • settings that don’t contain the children
    • o Macrosystem:
    • general beliefs and values of the society
    • o Chronosystem:
    • historical events that influence other systems
  24. Maternal gate-keeping parenting behavior
    • Mothers may dictate how involved fathers become.May encourage, discourage, or simultaneously encourage and discourage father involvement.
    • The controlling parent. want things done a certain way and will redo things if not done right
  25. complexity of familes
    bidirectional interaction
    subsystems such as dyadic relationship like mom and dad works 

    Direct effect: marital conflict with children

    indirect: marital conflict between parenting and or relationships with the children
  26. parenting styles (control and warmth)
    • ~Authoritative  
    • High on both dimension       
    • ~Authoritarian 
    • High on control/demandingness 
    • Low on warmth/responsiveness      
    • ~Permissive (indulgent) 
    • Low on control/demandingness  
    • High on warmth/responsiveness        
    • ~Uninvolved(neglectful)  
    • Low on both dimensions
  27. Outcomes from parenting styles
    • Delinquency: neglectful, permissive, authoritarian, authoritative
    • Academics: authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, permissive
  28. cultural differences in parenting styles
    • African-,Asian-, Hispanic- Americans
    • = all more authoritarian
    • American authoritarian is not equal to Chinese authoritarian (different values)
  29. Co-parenting (dimensions and outcomes)
    • ~supportive:(warm/cooperative)
    • few behavioral problems
    • ~undermining:(hostile/undermining)
    • more behavioral problems
    • weaker parent child relationshis
  30. constructive vs destructive conflict
    • Constructive conflict:
    • Confront each other with important issues. Not likely to have any negative effects on children.
    • Destructive conflict:
    • cruelty, neglect, deception, control
  31. Divorce (short term effects)
    • Depends on age of child
    • ~preschool and early childhood:
    • cognitive immaturity
    • ~School aged children and adolescence
    • truancy, delinquency 
    • greater responsibility
    • ~College students
    • shock, disillusionment
    • loss, estrangemen
  32. Divorce (3 factors the determine effects)
    • ~ transition
    • physical, psychological
    • ~ fewer resources
    • psychological resources
    • ~conflict
    • cause AND consequence of divorce
  33. Divorce (long term effect)
    • Generally improved adjustment after 2 years
    • More likely to develop menatal and emotional disorders later in life
  34. Remarriage
    easier for younger children than older children
  35. Types of aggression
    • ~Instrumental (proactive)
    • to achieve a goal, requires no provocation or anger
    • ~hostile
    • intimidate, harass or humiliate another child
    • Overt:bullying, fighting
    • Covert: indirect agression
  36. gender differences in aggression
    • boys more likely to have overt aggression
    • girls more likely to have relational aggression
  37. Kenneth Dodge aggression steps
    • encoding
    • interpret
    • goal formulation
    • response access/generation
    • response evaluation/selection
    • behavioral enacment
  38. 3 conditions of Dodges puzzle study
    • hostile- purpose mess up
    • benign- accident
    • ambiguous- unclear
    • RESULTS
    • hostile: both retaliated
    • benign: neither retaliated
    • ambiguous: only aggressive retaliated
  39. Classifying disorders (DSM-5; difficulty with diagnosis).
    • ~Categories depend on interpretations by clinicians rather on actual behavior
    • ~Focus on self-reports from patients:  
    • May be less reliable        
    • ~Differences in the kind of symptoms that clinicians expect to see in different disorders.
    • ~Comorbidity: the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual. (ex: depression and anxiety)
  40. 3 keys in diagnosing
    • disturbed thoughts,behavior, or emotion
    • distress and impairment
    • biological an psychological internal disfunction
  41. comorbidity
    • multiple disorders
    • ex// anxiety and depression
  42. depression in infants
    • severe conditions
    • low movement and irritablity
  43. depression in a child
    • somatic complaints and agitation
    • doesn't report sadness
  44. depression in an adolescent
    • fatigue
    • can report sadness
    • suicidal thoughts
  45. Major depression
    • 5 or more symptoms and is 2 weeks or longer
    • Depressed/irritable mood
    • Loss of interest / pleasure
  46. Dysthymia
    • more chronic than major depression
    • a year
    • 3 or more symptoms
    • milder symptoms but is heavier depression or double depression
  47. diagnoses differences in gender
    females will have a higher chance of depresion
  48. bipolar disorder
    high persistent cycles of mania and depresion
  49. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    Pervasive and chronic worry and anxiety
  50. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
    • Experience a traumatic event and have more problems than expected simply by the negative experience.
    • Symptoms:Depression,anxiety, emotional disturbance, somatic complaints, aggression, and acting out.
  51. Separation Anxiety Disorder
    Inappropriate and excessive fear or worry regarding separation from attachment figures
  52. Oppositional Defiant Disorder
    • Negative, hostile, and defiant behavior lasting at least 6 months, in which at least 4 of the following categories are present
    • ~Angry/irritable mood
    • Loses temper, easily annoyed, angry/resentful
    • ~ Argumentative/defiant behavior
    • Argues with authority figures, defying rules, tries to annoy others, blames others for mistakes
    • ~Vindictiveness:
    • Spiteful or vindictive at least twice in the last 6 months
  53. Conduct Disorder
    • Pattern of behavior in which the rights of others are routinely violated; 3 criteria
    • ~Aggression to people/animals
    • ~Destruction of property
    • ~Deceitfulness or Theft
    • ~Serious violation of rules
  54. Antisocial Personality Disorder
    General disregard for others; does not care about feelings or rights of others
  55. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
  56. Substance Use Disorder for Adolescents
    • Problematic pattern of use leading to impairment or distress, evidenced by at least 2
    • symptoms in a 12 month period

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