Exam 1 Clinicals - Upper Limb

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Exam 1 Clinicals - Upper Limb
2014-04-16 00:21:46

Clinicals in textbook for upper limb
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  1. - Infection in lymph upper limb, pectoral region, breast, and superior part of abdomen
    - Axillary nodes become enlarged, tender, and enflamed
    - Characterized by warm, red streaks in skin of limb
    - Enlarged lymph nodes lead to spread of breast cancer
    Enlargement of Axillary Lymph Nodes - Lymphangitis
  2. - Superior root (C6), Inferior root (T2)
    - Inferior trunk is compressed by first rib
    - Produces neurovascular symptoms in upper limb
    - Variations in formation of trunks, divisions, and cords, and combinations of branches in relation to axillary artery and scalene muscles
    Postfixed Brachial Plexus
  3. - The result of repetitive throwing
    - Mechanism: Tendon of long head of biceps (enclosed by synovial sheath) moves back and forth in intertubercular groove of humerus 
    - Enflamed tendon of bicep
    - Creates pain
    Biceps Tendinitis
  4. - Inflammation of elbow tendon
    - Caused by repetitive use of superficial extensor muscles in forearm
    - Pain is felt over lateral epicondyle and radiates down posterior surface of forearm
    Elbow Tendinitis (Tennis elbow) / or Lateral Epicondylitis
  5. - Non-tender cystic swelling on dorsal side of wrist
    - Contains clear mucinous fluid
    - Communicates with synovial sheath
    - Found in distal attachment of ext. carpi rad. brevis
    - Can lead to compression of median nerve by narrowing carpal tunnel
    Synovial cyst of the wrist
  6. - Disease of palmar fascia
    - Results in progressive shortening, thickening, and fibrosis of palmar fascia and palmar aponeurosis
    - Pulls 4th and 5th finger into partial flexion
    Dupuytren Contracture of Palmar Fascia
  7. - Lesion that reduces of carpal tunnel/ increases the size that pass through carpal tunnel
    - Median nerve is most affected by it
    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
  8. - Difficulty fully abducting arm
    - Caused by adhesive fibrosis and scarring between capsule of glenohumeral joint, rotator cuff, subacromial bursa, and deltoid
    Adhesive Capsulitis (aka "Frozen Shoulder")