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2010-07-17 02:21:06

Chapter One
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  1. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
    Sudden, life-threatening lung failure in which the alveoli inflame, fill with liquid and collapse, ceasing gas exchange & starving body of oxygen. Requires treatment with mechanical ventilation.
  2. Airway Resistance (Raw)
    The resistance to ventilation caused by movement of gas through airway
  3. Chemical Name
    indicates the STRUCTURE of the drug
  4. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    Group of progressive diseases that cause airflow blockage, and breathing-related problems. (Ex: chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma)
  5. Code Name
    name assigned by MANUFACTURER to a chemical that shows potential as a drug
  6. Cystic Fibrosis (CF)
    is an inherited disease of your secretory glands, that causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in the lungs and digestive tract.
  7. Generic Name
    reflects the drug's chemical name but in shorter form.
  8. Official Name
    name of drug used in U.S. Pharmacopeia
  9. Drug
    any chemical that alters body and/or mind without any nutritional value
  10. Pharmacology
    study of drugs, their origins, properties, and effects
  11. Pharmacy
    the preparation and dispensing of drugs
  12. Pharmacognosy
    identifying sources of drugs from plants & animals
  13. Pharmacogenetics
    studies the relationship between genetics & drug effects
  14. Nonproprietary Name
    non-trademarked name
  15. Therapeutics
    art of treating disease with drugs
  16. Toxicology
    study of toxic substances and their actions (Ex. antidote, poison control)
  17. Digitalis (Purple Foxglove flower)
    drugs made from this are used to treat Arrhymias and CHF
  18. Process of Drug Approval in the U.S.
    1. Chemical Isolation & Identification
    find new chemical with potential for useful physiological effects
  19. Process of Drug Approval in the U.S.
    2. Animal Studies
    examines general effects on animal & specific organs; toxicology examines mutations & effects on fertility
  20. Process of Drug Approval in the U.S.
    3. Investigational New Drug Approval (IND) [PART ONE]

    application filed with the FDA including all info on chemical and plans for human studies
  21. Process of Drug Approval in the U.S.
    3. Investigational New Drug Approval (IND) [PART TWO]
    • 3 Phases of Human Studies
    • i. small # of healthy subjects
    • ii. small # of subjects with the disease
    • iii. large, multicenter studies
  22. Process of Drug Approval in the U.S.
    4. New Drug Application (NDA)
    filed with FDA after successful IND. once approved, drug is released for general use and may be prescribed for treatment.
  23. Acetylcystine (Orphan Drug)
    intravenous administration for acetaminophen overdose
  24. Survanta (Beractant)
    prevention/treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) in newborns
  25. Pulmozyme (Dornase Alfa)
    treatment of cystic fibrosis, increase in airway secretion clearance
  26. INOmax (nitric oxide gas)
    treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension in newborns & acute respiratory distress in adults
  27. Orphan Drug
    drug for the diagnosis or treatment of a rare disease
  28. Prescription
    written order for a drug, including instructions for dispensing & taking the drug
  29. Six Parts of a Prescription
    • 1. patient's name, address, & date
    • 2. "Rx" (recipe/take thou) - superscription tells pharmacist to take drug listed and prepare medication
    • 3. inscription lists names and quantity of drug being prescribed
    • 4. subscription directions for how to prepare the medication
    • 5. transcription or signature info on patient's med. label (instructions)
    • 6. name of prescriber physician's name
  30. Over-The-Counter Drugs
    available to the general population without a prescription
  31. Adrenergic Agents
    • (B-Adrenergic) for relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle & bronchodilation, to improve flow in airway obstruction caused by COPD or asthma
    • [Albuterol, (Ar)Formoterol, Isoetherine, Levalbuterol, Metaproterenol, Pirbuterol, Salmeterol]
  32. Anticholinergic Agents
    (A-Adrenergic) for relaxation of induced bronchoconstriction, to improve flow rates in COPD or asthma patients

    [Epinephrine, Ipotropium bromide, Tiotropium bromide]
  33. Mucoactive agents
    mimics properties of mucus; lowers resistance and promotes clearance of secretions

    [Acetylcysteine, Dornase alfa]
  34. Corticosteroids
    to reduce and control airway inflammatory response

    [Budesonide, Ciclesonide, Flunisolide]
  35. Antiasthmatic agents
    prevents the onset & development of the asthmatic response

    [Cromolyn sodium, Zafirlukast, Nedocromil sodium, Montelukast]