streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (toxins only spread through the blood lymph stream and damage body organs)
How do S. pyogenes infections are transmitted?
Prevention of S. pyogenes infections
Where can we found streptococcus agalactiae (group B strep)as normal flora?
Human vaginal canal
What are S. agalactiae's virulence factors?
Capsule (protection from lysizyme & phagocytosis)
Adhisins (Protein that help it to stick to our body)
Name two infections caused by S. agalactiae?
Skin infection (in people with immunocompromised)
Neonatal meningitis (transmitted from mother to baby during birth)
How can S. agalactiae infection can be treated?
Screening for group B strep in 3rd trimester of pregnancy. if found positive, administrate IV penicillin to mother during labor
Where can we found streptococcus pneumoniae?
Which are the virulence factors of S. pneumoniae?
Host immune response stimulation
Which infections caused by S. pneumoniae?
Meningitis (if bacteria escape from the lungs)
How does S. pneumoniae infection can be transmitted?
Direct contact (specially by fluid exchange)
How is S. pneumoniae infection can be prevented?
Vaccine (two types one for kids and one for adults)
Limit contact with carrier
Where can we find Neisseria gonorrhea?
Only in human urogenital tract
Which are N. gonorrhea's virulence factors?
Fimbriae (sticks to each other and to our body)
Protease (enzyme that breaks down antibodies)
How does N. gonorrhea infection got transmitted?
from mother to infant (during delivery)
Which infections are caused by N. gonorrhea?
Extragenital gonorrhea (Outside the genital area such as eyes, hands, feet, or pneumonia in babies )
Autoinculation (infecting other pars of the body that comes with direct or indirect contact with genital gonorrhea) Use your imagination.
Where can we find Neisseria meningitidis?
human respiratory tract
Asymptomic carries will carry it in their nasal cavity (without getting sick or pass it to others) for few days to few months (about 3-30% of the population at any given time)
Which are the virulence factors of N. meningitidis?
12 different types of capsules (most common to cause disease in humans are A, B, and C)
Protease (breaks down antibodies)
LPS (endotoxin produce by G-that cause big immune response)
What type of infection/s are caused by N. meningitidis?
What symptoms it may have?
Meningitis (slewing of the meninges of the spinal cord and brain)
Bad headache, soar throat, stiff neck, rash, and sensitivity to light and sounds
How does N. meningitidis can be transmitted?
Direct contact (sharing saliva)
How can we treat prevent N. meningitidis infection?
Cephalosporins (β-lactam antibiotic that can cross the blood-brain barrier)
Vaccine (tow types one for ages 2-55 and another for ages 55 and older)
Tetracyclin (preventive antibiotics given to people who are in close contact with the infected person)
Where can we find clostridium perfringens?
Anywhere (soil, skin, intestine, and vagina)
Which are the virulence factors of C. perfringens?
Alpha toxin (cause hemolysis)
Collagenase (enzyme that breaks down collagen)
DNase (enzyme that breaks down DNA)
Metabolism (Facultative anaerobe that can ferment carbohydrates in muscle cells and produce gas that separate layers of skin)
What type of infection caused by C. perfringens?
How does C. perfringens infection transmitted?
Spores from the environment (come in contact with wound)
How can we treat/prevent C. perfringens infection?
Wound cleaning (prevent)
Oxygen chamber (treatment because C. perfringens does not grow well in presence of O2)
where can we find Clostridium botulinum?
Soil & water (all over the world)
GI tract of animals (sometimes in people GI tract too)
Which are the virulence factors of C. botulinum?
High heat resistance spores
Botulin (most potent toxin in the world that cause muscle paralysis)
What types of infection/s caused by C. botulinum?
Food-borne infection (toxin of the bacteria can cause a disease in people even if the bacteria is already dead as result of improper canning preparation)
Wound botulism (spores getting inside the body via wound soil contact specially in IV drug users)
How can we prevent C. botulinum infections?
Proper food canning/treatment (avoid giving foods like honey to infant under 2 YO)
Where can we find clostridium difficile?
Normal resident of human intestine (low number of vegetative and spores)
What type of virulence factors C. difficile have?
Toxins (cause inflammation intestine and death of the tissue lining the intestine as result, patches of this tissue fall off and the walls of the intestine become bloody and often have pockets of pus)
What infections caused by C. difficile?
What are the symptoms of this infection?
Antibiotic associate colitis (long period usage of antibiotics kill the normal flora of the intestine and C. diff spores germinate and cause pseudomembranous colitis)
Symptoms: yellow bloody diarrhea with strong odor.
How is C. difficile infection transmitted?
Nosocomial (health care workers pass spores on their cloths from one patient to another)
How can we prevent C. difficile infection?
Proper cleaning (hands, linen, etc.)
Proper use of antibiotics (not to use antibiotics for too long so it wont reduce the normal flora too much that protect the intestine from C. diff infection)
Vaccine is under development now
Where can we find Mycobacteria leprae?
What types of virulence factors does M. leprae has?
What type of infections are caused by M. leprae?
Tuberculoid leprosy (Superficial skin cells form spots on the skin over the body)
Lepromatous leprosy (the bacteria gets deeper in the tissue and cause disfiguring)
How does M. leprae infection transmitted?
How can we prevent M. leprae infection?
Surveillance (keep tract on new infections cases around the world)
Vaccine is under development
Where can we find Mycobacteria tuberculosis?
Human (1/3 of the world population and about 15 million of them in the U.S)
What types of virulence factors does M. tuberculosis has?
Mycolic acid ( allow it to stick very good specially to our lungs)
What type of infections caused by M. tuberculosis?
Primary TB (First time infection cause granulomas in the lungs)
Latent/recurrent TB (The bacteria stay latent in the lungs until the infection become active again)
Extrapulmonary TB ( the bacteria escape from the lungs and infect other parts of the body)
How does M. tuberculosis infection transmitted?
Droplets ( the bacteria can survive up to 8 months outside the body)
How can we prevent/treat M. tuberculosis infection?
Prevent droplet spread
Preventive antibiotics for high risk people
Vaccine under development.
Where can we find Pseudomonas aeruginosa?
Human GI tract (about 10 % carriers)
What type of virulence factors does Pseudomonas aeruginosa has?
Resistant to disinfectants (live in soap dishes)
Metabolic diversity (aerobic/anaerobic respiration and fermentation)
Slime layer (protection from phagocytosis)
LPS (cause huge immune response)
Which types of infections can be caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa?
Systemic (if enters the blood and lymph)
Urogenital tract infection
Eye infection (from growing in contact's solution)
Skin & nail infection
How do Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections get transmitted?
How can we prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections?
Sterilization (if possible)
Vaccine is under development
How does distribution of Treponemapallidum occur?
What type of disease it causes?
Sexual rout (becaus it is an obligate parasite)
What virulence factors does Treponemapallidum has?
Low infectious dose (57 cells)
Hooked tips (allow it to dig in tissue)
Stimulate immune response
membrane proteins (protection from immune response)
Know the stages of syphilis disease
Primary syphilis a chancer (sore) appear in the initial infection site and go away after 3 - 6 weeks.
Secondary syphilis 6 weeks after the fits symptoms are gone a rash over the body appears and then go away after 2 weeks.
Tertiary syphilis may last 20 years and during that time the bacteria effect the heart, spinal cord, and brain.
Where can we find Helicobacter pylori?
In the human GI tract
Which virulence factors does Helicobacter pylori has?
Mechanical damage (burning through the lining of the stomach)
Enzymes (cause more damage to the tissue and signal to other bacteria)
What types of infections caused by Helicobacter pylori?
Adenocarcinoma (cancer in the stomach)
Which routs Helicobacter pylori infection can be transmitted?
How Helicobacter pylori infection can be treated?
what are the differences between herpes simplex type 1 and type 2
HSV1 in mot cases (but not always) associate with oral herpes and begin in early childhood.
HVS2 in mot cases (but not always) associate with genital herpes and infect young adults
Which complications may happen as result of herpes infection
Herpetic keratitis the virus stay in the optic nerve and infect the eye cause scarring and effect vision.
New born herpes pass on from mother to baby may cause death of the baby.
Sporadic encephalitis the virus migrate to the brain and cause swelling and death
what diseases caused by herpesvirus varicella zoster?
How does varicella zoster (herpesvirus) virus get transmitted?
Where does it stay in its inactive state?
What happen during outbreaks?
Droplets It enter the respiratory cells and then spread to the nerves and stay there for the rest of our lives.
First outbreak is chicken pox the virus migrate to the skin and cause a rah all over the body
Recurrent outbreaks are shingles, a local rash
What type f infection caused by Papilloma Virus?
Which strains of this virus are most problematic for humans?
How can we treat this virus?
Warts genital and non-genital
there are 35 strains of human papilloma virus (HPV) .
9 strains cause genital cancer especially strains 16 & 18.
Vaccination with Gardasil & Cervarix between ages 9-11
Know the differences between hepatitis A, B, and C infections.
These viruses are not related to each other but they all infecting the liver.
Hepatitis A has very mild symptoms or many times not noticeable. It will clear from the body by itself after few days. I transmitted via fecal-oral rout.
Hepatitis B In some case there are mild symptoms then it will clear from the body and in other cases people become chronic carriers with symptoms such as jaundice, arthritis,and a rash. It is transmitted sexually or by blood products.
Hepatitis C is the worst type that cause permanent liver damage and can lead to cancer and other general problems. there is no cure for this type of hepatitis but it treated to keep the symptoms from getting worse.
What are the influenza virus infection symptoms?
Which regions of the body does this virus infecting?
coughing, body aches, fever, and congestion
Which are the two main antigens on the surface of the influenza virus?
What each of them do?
How many types of each of these antigens are there?
Hemaglutining clamp RBC together, 17 types
Neuraminidase an enzyme that help the virus get in and out the host cell, 9 typs
Which combination of H and N types of influenza virus are most common to cause flu in humans?
H1, H2, and H3
N1 & N2
How flu can be treated?
Self-limiting get sick with it until it go by it self
Antiviral drugs in more sever cases
Vaccination every year because there is a different version/combination of the H & N all the time
Prevent droplets spread
Which disease caused by Rhabdovirus?
How it get transmitted?
Animal bites, scratch, or spit in some cases
Which are the phases of rabies disease?
What happens in each phase?
1. incubation phase: after retrovirus enter the body in the trauma sit the virus gets in the nerve ending ans start to migrate toward the brain. most of the time no noticed symptoms involve.
2. Prodormal phase: A month after initial infection the person will start to feel sick with symptoms such as fever, nausea, headache, vomiting, and fatigue.
3. furious phase: the virus made it to the brain and the person will feel agitated and disoriented and may have seizures and twitching. Neck muscles spasm will cause foamy mouth and hydrophobia.
4. Dumb phase: the furious behavior is over and the person become stupid and paralyze until death
Which are the ways to treat rabies?
What does it means that HIV is a retrovirus?
The HIV copies its RNA and incorporate it in the host cell's DNA
Once inside the cell, the HIV use the enzyme transcriptase to copy strand of RNA to a strand of DNA and then it incorporate it in the cell DNA
Once the viral DNA is incorporated in the cell DNA, it become permanent part of it, so the cell and its daughter cells will make new viruses.
Which are the defining characteristics of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)?
CD4 count less than 200 cells/μL
CD4 is less than 14% of total lymphocytes
One or more AIDS defining illnesses
Which drugs are used treat AIDS?
How do they work?
Reverse transcriptase inhibition drug: Prevent HIV from copying its RNA into DNA
Protease inhibitor drug: prevent protease from cut up proteins and create capsid.
Integrase inhibitor drug: prevent viral DNA from entering into the host cell DNA.
Fusion/entry inhibitor drug: prevent adsorption.
Other mane for prions infection
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies
Which diseases are caused by prions?
How they get transmitted?
What are their symptoms?
Who get infected by theses diseases?
Creultzfeldt-Jakob disease: (CJD) Symptoms of dementia and death after 4 - 5 months. effect people at their 60's. 15% inherited genes and 80% sporadic (source unknown).
Kuru: Symptoms are mood swings, unable to walk in straight line death after 6-12 months. transmitted by cannibalism.
Fatal familial insomnia:Prions attack the thalamus cause permanent insomnia. inherited genes.
Scapie: Infect the brain of sheep & goats make them feel itchy all the time.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: (mad cow disease) Same symptoms as in CJD but it's effect people of all ages. transmitted by eating infected beef.
What is the life-cycle/distribution of coccidioidesimmitis?
What type of infections it may cause?
Fungus that grow in soil of hot or warm climate when it's wet and form spores. when the soil get dry, the spores break off and airborne in the wind then they inhaled by human and animals and get in their lungs.
Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) May cause pneumonia and death or migrate via the blood and infect the bones and cause permanent damage.
What types of infections are related with Tinea spp. fungus?
How do these fungus spread?
What are the symptoms of these infections?
How these infections can be treated?
Ring worm infection or athlete foot: Cause allergic reaction in the skin and inflammation.
Spread by durable spores that can be found on non-living objects, people, and animals.
Topical drugs such as Miconazole, Camphor, menthol Or UV light
Which types of infections caused by candida albicans?
How these organism infect the body?
Candida albicans cause yeast infection in the mouth, vagina, GI tract, lungs, internal organs,and the blood.
It is part of our normal flora and only cause infection if other organism (of the body flora)are disrupt and leave the tissue open for over growth. Candida albicans forms pseudohyphae and release digestive enzymes that grow dip into tissue during infection.
Where pneumocystisjiroverci can be found?
What type of organism is it?
What type of infection it cause?
Who is going to get sick by it?
How it can be treated?
How does it spreads?
Fungus in the lungs (not problem causing in healthy people) .
People with HIV/AIDS or immunocompromised
Special Anti-fungal drags because it's lack of ergo-sterol
Which type of organism is naegleria fowleri?
Where it can be found?
How it get transmitted to people?
Which symptoms it causes?
How it can be treated?
Live in warm shallow water.
Get in the nose and effects the brain (frontal region).
Massive headache, stiff neck, coma, and death.
Induced coma, antiprotozoal drugs, anti inflammatory drugs.
What is the life cycle/distribution of giardia intestinalis?
How it can cause disease and what are its symptoms?
How it can be transmitted?
How it can be treated?
Lives in mammals GI tract or as cyst form in the environment.
Cause GI tract infection only if it is in high quantity.
Symptoms are bleeding, diarrhea, and discomfort.
Transmission via food, water, oral rout
Flagyl (Trinidazole r metronidazole)
Where trichomonas vaginalis can be found?
Which type of infection caused by it and what are its symptoms?
How it can be treated?
Protozoa that found only i human urogenital tract (50% asymptomic carriers)
Tricomoniasis (trich infection) in the urogenital tract
Symptoms are green-yellow discharge, pain, inflammation, and odor.
Where toxoplasma gondii can be found?
How is it transmitted?
Which type of infection it cause?
who get infected with it?
Protozoa in cat's feces (feniles) or cyst in soil
Ingestingcysts that hatch in the intestine.
Toxoplasmosis infection:Brain swelling. Also effect developing eyes and bones in fetus
Fetus and people with HIV/AIDS
What are nematodes?
Round worms that infect the intestines and tissue.
What are the two categories of flat worms?
Cestodes or tapeworms usually infect the intestine but can infect other regions.
Trematodes or flukes infect the tissue and organs such as liver, lungs, and blood
Round worm that infect the intestines.
Eggs are ingested and hatched in the small intestine.
Larvae move to the lungs and coughed and swallowed again
then matured and live in the intestine
Female produce 200,000 eggs a day
Cause abdominal discomfort in adults
May block the way of elimination in children
Trichiris trichuria or Whip worm
Small round worms that live in the large intestine.
The eggs need between 18 to 22 days before they can infect the human intestine if ingested
Individual worm can live up to 1.5 to 2 years.
If the infection gets really bad it cause prolapse rectum (the rectum fall from the body)
Entrobius vermicularis or Pin worms
Round worms that live in the large intestine and feed on E. coli.
Eggs are swallowed and hatch in the small intestine.
At night the female leave the body through the anus and expel their eggs.
Most of the times the eggs are ingested by the same person or someone else.
Some times the eggs are hatched in the skin and the larvae enters the body via the anus or the vaginal canal.
Necator americanus hook worm
Round worm that release enzymes and it has hooks in its moith that enable it to enter the body through the skin.
After they pass the skin, they get inside the capillaries and travel to the lungs
Than they get coughed up and swallowed into the small intestine where they are going to live between 2-5 years or sometimes 15 years
They may cause anemia or nutrient deficiency in some cases
Round worm that get in the body by eating raw or undercooked meat (usually pork)
It is a intracellular parasite because it lives inside muscle cells.
The eggs ingested and hatch in the small intestine
than the larvae move the the muscle cells and diaphragm
After that they can spread through the blood and infect the heart and brain