Sociology: Chap 9

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Sociology: Chap 9
2014-04-16 18:32:15
Sociology Chap9
Global Stratification
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  1. global stratification?
    patterns of social inequality in the world as a whole
  2. high-income countries?
    the nations with the highest overall standards of living
  3. middle-income countries?
    nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole
  4. low-income countries?
    nations with a low standard of living, in which most people are poor
  5. colonialism?
    the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations
  6. neocolonialism?
    a new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations
  7. multinational corporation?
    a large business that operates in many countries
  8. modernization theory? 
    a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations
  9. dependency theory? 
    a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
  10. what are some charatcterics of high-come countries?
    • contain 23% of the world's people 
    • receive 75% of global income 
    • have a high standard of living based on advanced technology
    • produce enough economic goods to enable their people to lead comfortable lives 
    • include 72 nations
    • highly industrialized
  11. what are some characteristics of middle-income countries?
    • contain 61% of the world's people 
    • receive 23% of global income
    • have average standard of living 
    • include 70 nations
    • earn on average $2500-$10000
  12. what are some characteristics of low-income countries?
    • contain 17% of world's people
    • receive 1% of global income 
    • low standard of living 
    • include 53 nations
    • agrarian societies 
    • little industry
  13. how many people worldwide are at risk of poor nutrition?
    925 million
  14. how many people die a year from poverty related diseases?
    9 million
  15. how many men, women and children live in slavery like conditions?
    12.3 million
  16. how many child laborers?
    215 million
  17. what factors cause poverty?
    • lack of technology 
    • high birth rates
    • traditional cultural patterns 
    • extreme social inequality 
    • extreme gender inequality 
    • colonialism
  18. what are Wait Rostow's four stages of development?
    • traditional stage- families and communities 
    • take-off stage-produce goods for profit 
    • drive to technological maturity- economic growth/higher social standing for women  
    • high mass consumption- people need countless goods
  19. what are Immanuel's Wallerstein's model of the capitalist world economy identified three categorizes of nations?
    • core- high income countries, multinational corporations 
    • semi periphery- middle income
    • periphery- low-income; provide low-cost labor to high income countries