Final Exam

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Final Exam
2014-04-17 17:32:05
Final Exam

Final Exam
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  1. What are the 3 subgroups of the lineage Chordata
    • Two invertebrate groups (Urochordata and Cephalochordata).
    • And Vertebrata.
  2. Chordates are Deuterostomes with four unique characteristics that appear some time during the animals life. List those four characteristics
    • Notochord
    • A dorsal, hollow nerve cord
    • Pharyngeal slits
    • Muscular postanal tail
  3. Define what a Notochord is
    • A longitudinal, flexible rod located between the gut and nerve cord
    • Composed of large, fluid filled cells encased in a stiff, fibrous tissue
    • Extends through most of the length of the animals as a simple skeleton
  4. True of false: A Notochord is present in most, but not all chordata embryos.
    False: A notochord is present in all chordate embryos
  5. True of False: The notochord does not persist to animal adulthood.
    False: In some invertebrate chordates and primitive vertebrates, the notochord persists to support the adult
  6. Where does the dorsal, hollow nerve cord develop, and from what does it develop?
    • In the embryo
    • From a plate of dorsal ectoderm that rolls into a tube located dorsal to the notochord
  7. True or False: The dorsal, hollow nerve cord is unique to chordates
  8. What develops from the dorsal, hollow nerve cord?
    The brain and spinal cord
  9. What do other animal clades have instead of the  dorsal, hollow nerve cord?
    Solid, usually ventral, nerve cords.
  10. The pharynx is the region just ______ to the mouth and it opens to the _______ through several pairs of slits.
    • posterior
    • outside
  11. The presence of ______ permits water entering the mouth of chordates to exit without passing through the entire digestive system
    pharyngeal gill slits
  12. What was the original function of Pharyngeal Gill Slits?
    For suspension feeding in invertebrates chordates
  13. Explain the Muscular postanal tail.
    A tail extending beyond the anus, found in most chordates and contains skeletal elements and muscles.
  14. What is a Prehensile Tail, and what are examples of animals that have it?
    • A prehensile tail is the tail of an animal that has adapted to be able to grasp or hold objects.
    • New World Monkeys, Spider Monkeys, Boa Constrictor, and Opossum
  15. What function does the muscular postanal tail serve for aquatic chordates?
    Provides propulsive force
  16. Species in the Urochordata are commonly called ________.
  17. Lineage of Animals that is cloaked in a tunicate made of a cellulose like carbohydrate
    A. Cephalochordate
    B. Urochordata
    C. Notochord
    D. Vertebrata
    • Lineage of Animals that is cloaked in a tunicate made of a cellulose like carbohydrate
    • A. Cephalochordate
    • B. Urochordata
    • C. Notochord
    • D. Vertebrata
  18. Are most marine animals of Urochordates sessile or mobile?
    Sessile. Most marine Urochordates are sessile and adhere to rocks, docks, and boats
  19. True of False: Urochordates do not have planktonic or colonial species.
    False: Some Urochordates are planktonic (floating), while others are colonial
  20. True of False: Tunicates bare little resemblance to other chordates
  21. What specifically separates Tunicates from other chordates?
    • They lack a notochord, nerve cord, and tail
    • They possess only pharyngeal gill slits
  22. What special feature of Tunicate larvae makes them interesting?
    Larval tunicates are free swimmers and possess all four chordate characteristics, but lose 3 during development.
  23. Animals in the Cephalochordata are know as _______ due to their bladelike shape.
  24. What kind of feeders are Cephalochordates
    Marine filter feeders
  25. Cephalochordates more closely resemble _________ than _________.
    • Urochordate larva
    • Adult urochordates
  26. What are the 4 characteristics that define Vertebrates?
    • Neural crest
    • Pronounced cephalization
    • Vertebral column 
    • Closed circulatory system
  27. What did the unique Vertebrate structures probably evolve in association with?
    Increased size and more active foraging for food.
  28. Define Neural Crest
    A group of embryonic cells found only in vertebrates, which contributes to the formation of certain skeletal components and many other structures distinguishing vertebrates from other chordates 
  29. True of False: Vertebrates show a much lesser degree of cephalization than cephalochordates.
    False: Vertebrates show a much greater degree of cephalization than cephalochordates.
  30. In Vertebrates, what parts of the skeleton make up the axis of the body, and what did it replace (think evolutionary)?
    • Cranium and Vertebral column make up the axis of the body
    • Replaces the notochord as the basic skeleton
  31. What kind of circulatory system do vertebrates have, and what is it composed of?
    • Closed circulatory system
    • Ventral chambered heart (two to four chambers), arteries, capillaries, and veins
  32. Vertebrates are divided in which two major groups?
    • Agnatha (jaw-less vertebrates)
    • Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates)
  33. What are the 8 lineages that Gnathostomes are divided into?
    • Chondrichtyes 
    • Actinopterygii
    • Actinista
    • Dipnoi
    • Amphibia
    • Reptilia
    • Aves
    • Mammalia
  34. Define Tetrapod
    An animal possessing two pairs of limbs that support it on land
  35. Which 4 Gnathostome lineages are tetrapods?
    • Amphibia
    • Reptilia
    • Aves
    • Mammalia 
  36. What are the adaptions (other than being tetrapods) reptiles, birds, and mammals have that are not found in amphibians? 
    • Amniotic egg (a shelled, water resistant egg)
    • Most mammals do not lay eggs
  37. True of False: Mammals are considered amniotes along with the birds and reptiles
  38. Describe how the mouths of ancient Agnathans used to be.
    Jawless with oval or slitlike mouths
  39. Describe what ancient Agnathans used to lack, and where they (the animals) were often found.
    Most lacked paired fins (Currently Lampreys and Hagfish lack paired fins), and were bottom dwellers.
  40. True of False: All agnathans were sessile and lacked paired fins
    False: Some agnathans were active and had paired fins
  41. What are Ostracoderms considered to be?
    One of the earliest invertebrates; were jaw-less and had "external armor"
  42. What are the only extant (living) Agnathans?
    What do they lack?
    • Lampreys and hagfish
    • Paired appendages (fins) and external armor
  43. What is the shape of a Lamprey, and how does it feed
    • Eel-shaped
    • Feed by clamping their round mouths onto live fish (They are ecto-parasitic of fish). Once attached, they use a rasping tongue to penetrate the skin and feed on the prey's blood.
  44. Where do Lamprey's spend their larval development stage, and where do they migrate to.
    • Freshwater streams
    • Migrate to the sea or lakes as they mature
  45. True of False: Hagfish are exclusively freshwater
    False: Hagfish are exclusively marine
  46. True of False: Hagfish are ecto-parasitic
    False: They are scavengers without rasping mouthparts
  47. Hagfish superficially resemble _______.
  48. The agnathans were gradually replaced by _______
    Vertebrates with jaws (Gnathostomes)
  49. Early Gnathostomes included ancestors of the lineage _______ and _______, and a now extinct group of armored fishes called ______.
    • Chondricthyes and Osteicthyes
    • Placoderms 
  50. The first jawed vertebrates were ______
  51. Gnathostomes differed from Agnathans in which ways?
    • Possessed paired fins
    • Possessed hinged jaws 
  52. What are the advantages paired fins and hinged jaws allow?
    • Paired fins - enhance swimming ability
    • Hinged Jaw - allowed more varied feeding habits including predation 
  53. Vertebrate jaws evolved from ________.
    Skeletal supports of the pharyngeal slits 
  54. Hinged jaws evolved as modifications of the _________ which previously supported the _______.
    • Skeletal rods
    • anterior pharyngeal (gill) slits
  55. In vertebrates, while hinged jaws developed, the remaining gills slits retained which function?
    Functioned as major gas exchange sites
  56. The Devonian period is known as the ______.
    Age of the Fishes
  57. What two lineages radiated during the Devonian period?
    Placoderms and Acanthodians (another group of jawed fishes)
  58. What features are diagnostic of the lineage Chondricthyes
    A cartilaginous endoskeleton reinforced by calcified granules 
  59. Species in the lineage Chondrichthyes have what 3 features
    • Flexible skeletons composed or cartilage
    • Well-develped jaws
    • Paired fins
  60. The ancestors of Chondricthyes had ______.
    Bony skeletons
  61. What kind of characteristic is the cartilaginous skeleton of Chondricthyes?
    It is a derived characteristic, having evolved secondarily 
  62. Sharks lack a ______.
    Swim bladder
  63. Describe the characteristics of the Sharks bodies:
    1. The tail provides ______
    2. The dorsal fins serve as ______
    3. Pectoral and pelvic fins produce _______.
    4. Some buoyancy is provided by ______, but most must _______.
    • 1. propulsion
    • 2. stabilizers
    • 3. lift
    • 4. Oil stored in the liver; swim continuously to remain in the water column 
  64. Which Chindricthyes are suspension feeders?
    • Whale Sharks
    • Basking Sharks
    • Manta Rays
  65. True of False: All sharks are carnivorous 
    False: Whale Sharks and Manta Rays are suspension feeders
  66. Shark teeth evolved as _____.
    Modified scales
  67. How does the sharks digestive tract compare to other vertebrates?
    It is proportionately shorter
  68. What is present in the Sharks intestines?
    It is a Spiral Valve, which increases the surface are and slows food movement
  69. What special sensory adaptions are found in Sharks?
    • Sharp vision (but cannot distinguish color)
    • Olfactory senses (smell)
  70. All fish have a ________
    Lateral Line system
  71. Lateral Line System in sharks is _______, and is present where?
    • composed of rows of microscopic organs sensitive to water pressure changes and detects vibrations
    • Present along the flanks (sides)
  72. How do sharks reproduce?
    Sexually with internal fertilization 
  73. What are the 3 methods of birthing present in Sharks?
    • Oviporous - Egg laying
    • Ovoviviporous - Egg hatching inside the female
    • Viviporous - Live birth
  74. What is a Cloaca? What animal is it found in?
    • a common chamber for reproductive, digestive and excretory glands
    • Sharks
  75. Rays are adapted to what lifestyle?
    A bottom dwelling lifestyle
  76. What are the hallmarks of Osteichthyes?
    • A bony endoskeleton
    • Operculum
    • Swim bladder
  77. How many lineages of Osctichthyes are recognized?
  78. Describe the skeleton of Osteichthyes.
    Bony skeleton, reinforced with a matrix of calcium phosphate
  79. Where are Osteichthyes abundant?
    Marine and Fresh Water
  80. Describe the skin of Osteichthyes.
    • Covered with flattened body scales
    • Skin glands produce mucus that reduces drag when swimming
  81. True of False: Osteichthyes have no lateral line system
    False: Osteichthyes have a lateral line system present as a row of tine pits in the skin on both sides of the body
  82. How does gas exchange occur in Osteichthyes?
    By drawing water over the four or five pairs of gills located in the chambers covered by an operculum
  83. What provides bouyancy for Osteichthyes?
    A swim bladder
  84. Most bony fish are ______ and utilize ______.
    • Oviparous (egg laying)
    • External fertilization 
  85. Give the genus/species of a special Osteichthyes, and explain what makes it stand out.
    • Rivulus marmoratus 
    • It is a self-fertilizing hermaphrodite (essentially "Cloning" themselves). Also has Ovotestis. 
  86. True or False: All Osteichthyes are oviporous
    False: Some are ovoviviporous or viviporous and utilize internal fertilization 
  87. Sharks arose ______, and bony fish probably arose from _______.
    • From the Sea
    • Fresh Water
  88. The swim bladder in Osteichthyes was modified from ______.
    lungs of ancestral fishes which supplemented the gills for gas exchange in stagnant waters
  89. The lineage ______ includes fish with fins supported mainly by flexible rays
  90. The lineage _______ includes lobe-finned fishes (Coelacanths and Rhipidistans)
  91. Coelacanths and rhipidistians are referred to as _______.
    Lobe-finned fishes
  92. Give 2 descriptors of Coelacanths and rhipidistians
    • 1. Their fins were flashy, muscular, and supported by extensions of the body skeleton
    • 2. Many were large, bottom-dwelling forms that used their paired fins to walk on the substratum
  93. Which is the only extant species: Coelacanths or rhipidistians
  94. True or False: Coelacanths are marine and lungless
  95. True of False: Not all rhipidistians are extinct
    False: All rhipidistians are extinct
  96. Three lineages of _______ exist only in the Southern Hemisphere 
  97. Where can lungfish be found?
    Stagnant ponds and swamps where they surface to gulp air into lungs connected to the pharynx
  98. What do lungfish do when ponds dry?
    They burrow in the mud and aestivate (spending a hot or dry period in a prolonged state of torpor or dormancy)
  99. Describe what was important of Lobe-Finned Fish of the Devonian period.
    They were numerous and important in vertebrate genealogy because they probably gave rise to amphibians 
  100. _________ is an extinct tetrapod genus, among the first vertebrate to have recognizable limbs
  101. Acanthostega is anatomically _______ and the first tetrapods (amphibians) fully capable of _______.
    • Intermediate between lobe-finned fishes 
    • Coming onto land