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What's the difference between baby & adult teeth?
baby teeth - 2 molars [20 total]
adult teeth - 3 molars [32 total]
What is bile?
Does not digest fat, but emulsifies it
- Derivative of cholesterol.
- Made by the liver, stored in gall bladder.
(improves digestions of lipids-- by lipase)
When we eat, its discharged into the duodenum.
What is the role of Hydrochloric acid in digestion?
comes from gastric pits (in the stomach)
- 1. it activates pepsin
- 2. KILLS GERMS aka "cleans" food
What is the role of Bicarbonate in digestion?
comes from pancreas, enters the small intestine
- 1. neutralizes the HCl (in the small intestine)
- 2. reduces damage to intestines & enzymes
Where is amylase primarily secreted from? what does it break down?
found in oral and small intestine. It breaks down starches into dissacharides
where is pepsin secreted? what does it break down?
stomach. protein into peptides
where is lipase secreted? what does it break down?
small intestine. fats into fatty acids & glycerol
what is the essential function of the colon?
absorbs water and expels solid waste
what is secretin?
comes from enteric lining. when HCl acid reaches duodenum, secretin is released into blood stream, which triggers pancreas to release bicarbonate, helping to neutralize HCL acid thus preventing damage to small intestine.
what is cholecystokinin?
comes from enteric lining (duodenum). Is released if fat or protein enters, which triggers pancreatic enzymes & gall bladder contraction (release bile)
Two ways for nutrients to get to blood?
1. Protein & Sugars gets absorbed through digestive system, enters hepatic portal system (directs blood from GI to liver), and then gets distributed to rest of the body
2. Lipids get broken down into fatty acids & glycerol. then pass through endoplasmic reticulum of intestinal cells where then get reassembled. Before leaving the cell, triglycerides become coated with protein (which are called CHYLOMICRONS). Chylomicrons (aka triglycerides in guise) then enter lymphatic capillaries called LACTEALS, which go to lymphatic system! (via thoracic duct)
A full and stretched has what effect?