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- * Information Processing Model?
- * A model of how humans perceive, remember, process and respond to the information in their environment
Stages of processing model (first and secong involved in cognition, stages can overlap)?
- * The senses (left) gather information
- * The information is perceived providing meaningful interpretation of the sensed info aided by prior knowledge in LTM through top-down processing
- * Then a response is executed
Memory: two types of memory?
Workng memory and Long term memory
Working Memory (short-term)?
information you are working on, lasts while you are rehearsing it
There is a limited capacity?
- * How much: 7+- 2 chunks, Items bound by spacing or binding, cunking increases capacity by reducing number of units, aids in retention by using meaningful units
- * How long: shorter time for many chunks, decays when no rehearsal, depends on interference of similar info
Model of WM?
- * Central Executive: acts as an attentional control system that coordinates information from the two storage systems
- * Visuospatial sketch pad: holds information in a spatial form (visual such as colors and shapes)
- * Phonologic Loop: verbal (spoken or text) information in acoustic form (phone numbers)
Design implications from WM?
- * Minimize WM load, side-side better than screen-screen. Let people write things down to minimize load
- * Provide visual echoes: when message is said verbally it should be accompanied by a visual readout to avoid WM failures
- * Exploit chunking: can increase acmount of material held in WM and increase its transfer to LT
- o Physical chunks: (numbers, letter, both) 3-4 #/ chunk
- o Meaningful sequences: the meaningful sequence is already in LTM. (IOE 333)
- o Superiority of letters over numbers (1-800-call-collect)
- o Separate numbers and letters
- * Minimize confusability: forming sound alike letters, spatial separation, numbers in sequence
- * WM limits in instructions, procedure design: sentences should be comprehended, dont expect people to remember future steps, no tolerance for errors when used for emergencies.
Long term Memory:?
(repository)stores information for later retrieval, info needed to rehearse working memory can be retrieves from LTM, helps recognize new stimuli. Cant forget you moms face by someone interrupting you. Unlimited size, but limited, accessing info can be a problem sometimes.
Types of Information in LT?
Semantic, episodic, prospective
declarative or faces (can verbalize or describe knowledge); procedural (how to do things): implicit and skill based eg solve math problems, play instrument, ride bike, longer to learn than facts but slower to forget.
Event: Episodic Memory?
Past memory of lived experiences. Acquired from a single experience (no repetition); Based on visual imagery (faces); Affected by biases and expectations (eye witness), biases may unconsciously intensify with time
Remembering to do something in the future (very hard to retrieve) put alarms and use calendars and checklists
Processes that ocurr in LTM?
Storage and retrieval
when information moves from WM to LTM
LTM to WM remembering due to strength and association
Strength of memory?
more strength with more frequent or recent activation and with repetitive training. Design Implication: frequent and trained > casual
item retrieve linked to another item in WM, more links and associations make it easier to find item in LTM. The WM activates and strengthens association. Where did I leave my keys. Go through you day and the link will lead to keys Implication for training: Chunks that involve association facilitate storage and retrieval
Forgetting: retrieval of information fails from WM and LTM
- * Weak links, few associations, interference from similar associations
- Organization of Information?
- different info stored differently, semantic network (pieces) and parallel processing spreading activation of related concepts to allow retrieval
knowledge about a particular topic (college has students, classrooms, courses).
schemas that describe a sequence of activities such as turning a computer on. Schemas build expectations --> biased memory
- Models of how things work, schemas about dyamic systems. Our understanding of components, how a system works and how to use it.
- * Generate expectancies about how something will behave
- * Models may vary on how complete or correct they are.
- * These can be general or personal.
mental representations of spatial information such as paths or maps.
LTM Implications for Design:
- o Encourage regular use of info to increase frequency and recency
- o Active verbalization of information that is to be recalles
- o Standardize, use a mental mode of a system and apply to another.
- o Put knowledge in the world rather than in the head.
- * Dont rely on LTM tell people what to do, exploit mapping and expectations, support development of correct mental modes.
- * Use memory aids: instruction list
- o Design systems to aid in storage and retrieval
- * Meaningful words, acronyms, icons.
- * Provide context, grouping organization and association
- o Make operations consistent with expectations
- o Cause-effect principles visible to aid mental mode development
- refers to perceived properties of a thing that determine how the thing could possibly be used
- o Interaction of object and capabilities of perceiver affordance depends on perceiver as well
- o Provide strong clues to the operations of things (knobs for turning, flat plates for pushing
It is a resource required for most stages in information processing. (limited availability get tired)
- focuses on only some stimuli in sensory registry.
- o Infleunced by: salience, effort, expenctancy, value
- o Peripheral information not processed in as much detail but still processed to some extent (hear conv at a party, tune out TV)
Modes of Attention?
(time sharing) processing info for several tasks at once. Eg: listen and write, drive and talk to passenger. Performance when attending one alone > together
Factors affecting time sharing ability?
- -Automatic (no attention required) vs controlled (attention required) processing; automatic: reading a text, sports, instruments, stopping at red light --> becomes automatic with practice
- -Time sharing skill: practice tasks together to increase performance at both. Strategy for combining tasks
- * Use of multiple resources????
- * Stages in processing
- * Perceptual vs response selection (2 controlling tasks worse than perceptual+control)
- * Input modality:
- * 2 auditory or 2 visual, harder than visual and auditory
Attention design implications?
- o Cannot assume that presented info will be attended to and processed
- * Salience
- o Encourage development of automaticity
- o Beware of requiring non-routine responses to automated behaviors
- o For time sharing, utilize dissimilar modalities, processing and output