Bio 27

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issacgoboom
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270867
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Bio 27
Updated:
2014-04-17 01:02:45
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  1. Halobacteria
    • Archaea
    • can survive extremely salty environments
  2. Features of Prokaryotes
    • Unicellular
    • 0.5-5 um
    • all body parts organized in a single cell
  3. Peptidoglycan
    • modified sugars
    • make up bacterial cell walls
    • not in archaea
  4. Eukaryotes made up of
    cellulose or chitin
  5. Gram-positive
    • gram stain
    • simpler walls
    • lots of peptidoglycan
    • less resistant to antibiotics
  6. Gram-negative
    • gram stain
    • more complex walls
    • less peptidoglycan
    • more resistant to antibiotics
  7. capsule
    • sticky layer of polysaccharide
    • dense
    • stick together
    • protect from immunity and dehydration
  8. fimbriae
    • appendages
    • prokaryotes
    • used to stick to surfaces
  9. pili
    • larger appendages than fimbriae
    • used in reproduction
  10. taxis
    directed movement toward or away from a stimulus
  11. flagella in archaea, bacteria, eukaria homologous or analogous'
    • analogous
    • evolved independently
  12. parts of flagellum in bacteria
    • motor
    • hook
    • filament
  13. exaptation
    existing structures take on new functions through descent and modification
  14. bacterial DNA
    circular with less proteins than eukaryotes
  15. nucleoid
    • region in cytoplasm
    • lighter in color
    • contains 1 chromosome
  16. plasmids
    • smaller rings of dna
    • replicating independently from the main chromosome
    • inside of nucleoid
    • only carry a few genes
  17. binary fission
    • prokaryotic cell divides into 2 
    • then into 4 etc.
    • every 1-3 hours
  18. endospore
    • replicated dna in a bacteria
    • covered by resistant shell
    • original bacteria lyses (blows up)
    • endospore remains dormant
  19. 3 origins of prokaryotic diversity
    • rapid reproduction
    • mutation
    • genetic recombination
  20. genetic recombination
    • combining DNA from two sources
    • provides genetic variation
  21. horizontal gene transfer
    transferring genes from one organism to another
  22. transformation
    genotype is altered by uptake of foreign DNA from the surroundings
  23. transduction
    virus that infects bacteria by injecting dna into it
  24. conjugation
    • dna is transferred between two prokaryotes
    • sex pilus is used
  25. F factor
    • fertility factor
    • ability to grow pili to conjugate dna
  26. F plasmid
    • a plasmid of dna that will be passed to a bacteria without the f plasmid
    • contains only some dna
  27. Hfr cell
    • high frequency of recombination
    • can transfer dna directly from its chromosome (not plasmid)
  28. shigella
    bacteria that causes diarrhea
  29. R plasmids
    • carry resistance to antibiotics
    • (r for resistance)
  30. phototrophs
    obtain energy from light
  31. chemotrophs
    obtain energy from chemicals
  32. autotrophs
    only need CO2
  33. heterotrophs
    require at least one organic nutrient
  34. Obligate aerobes
    need O2 for cellular respiration
  35. Obligate anaerobes
    poisoned by O2
  36. Anaerobic respiration
    subtances other than O2 accept electrons from transport chains
  37. Facultative anerobes
    use 02 if is present, but can carry out anaerobic respiration in an anaerobic environment
  38. Nitrogen fixation
    convert N2 into ammonia to make organic molecules
  39. anabaena
    bacteria that has heterocysts
  40. heterocysts
    • some bacteria make filaments of cells connected in a chain
    • heterocysts carry out nitrogen fixation and exchange with neighbouring phototrophs
  41. Biofilm
    metabolic cooperation between different prokaryotic species
  42. 4 major nutritional modes for prokaryotes
    • Photoautotroph
    • Chemoautotroph
    • Photoheterotroph
    • Chemoteterotroph
  43. extreme halophiless
    live in highly saline environments
  44. methanogens
    • archae
    • release methane
  45. decomposers
    chemoheterotrophs
  46. symbiosis
    two species live close with each other
  47. host
    larger organism in symbiosis
  48. symbiont
    smaller orgainsm in symbiosis
  49. mutualism
    type of symbiosis in which botwh partners benefit
  50. commensalism
    ecological relationship in which only one partner benefits but the other does not get harmed
  51. parasitism
    • in which parasite eats cell contents, tissues and body fluids
    • harms and eventually kills (sometimes)
  52. pathogens
    parasites that cause disease
  53. exotoxins
    proteins secreted by bacteria
  54. endotoxins
    • toxins located withing the gram negative bacterial cell walls
    • only released when cells die
  55. bioremediation
    using organisms to remove pollutants from soil, air or water
  56. shapes of prokaryotes
    • spheres (cocci)
    • rods (bacilli)
    • spirals

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