Anatomy & Phys 2

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Anatomy & Phys 2
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A&P 2
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  1. Purpose of Endocrine System
    • Maintain homeostasis in coordination with the nevous system
    • Comunicate between different parts using hormones
    • Adjust body to environment changes
  2. Glands
    • Endocrine
    • Paracrine
    • Autocrine
    • Exocrine
  3. Effective dose of hormones
    low
  4. 2 types of hormones
    • Steroid/ Steroid like
    • Non-Steroid
  5. Types of Steroid/ Steroid like hormones
    • Sex hormones
    • Adrenal cortex hormones
    • Lipids containing complex ring structures
  6. Types of Non-Steroid like hormones
    • Amines
    • Proteins
    • Peptides
    • Glycoproteins
  7. Hormone Action of Steroid like
    up or down regulate proteins
  8. Hormone Action of Non-Steroid like
    binds to cell-surface receptors and activate a second messenger
  9. Control of Hormonal
    • controlled by negative feedback
    • may be short lived or last for days
    • levels maintain or raised by secretion
    • secretions are precisely regulated
  10. Hypothalamus
    • located near the thalamus and 3rd ventricle of brain
    • recieves information through neural connections and cerebrospinal fluid
    • affects specific subpopulation of cells in anterior P.G
    • Most prevelent: hormone-releasing
  11. Pituitary Gland
    (Hypophsis)
    • located at the base of the brain in the sella turcica in sphenoid bone
    • connected to the base of hypothalamus by infundibulum
  12. 2 portions of the P.G.
    • Anterior Pituitary
    • Posterior Pituitary
  13. Anterior Pituitary Hormones
    • Hypothalamic releasing hormones stimulate cells anterior
    • pituitary to release hormones
    • Nerve impulses from hypothalamus stimulate nerve endings in the posterior pituitary gland to release hormones
  14. STIMULATION OF ANTERIOR PITUITARY
    • Hypothalamus releases hormone-releasing hormones into capillaries
    • Hormone-releasing hormones travel down through the portal vein in the infundibulum
    • Hormone-releasing hormones released from capillary bed in anterior pituitary
    • Hormone-releasing hormones stimulate or inhibit release of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland into the capillary bed
  15. Growth Hormone
    (somatotropin)
    • Protein
    • Stimulates cells to grow and divide more rapidly
    • Enhances transport of amino acids across cell membrane
    • Increases protein synthesis and rate of utilization of fats
    • Decreases rate of utilization of carbohydrates
    • Directly stimulates growth of bone tissue
    • Indirectly stimulates growth of cartilage using insulin-like growth factor 1
  16. Prolactin
    • Protein
    • Stimulates milk production in females
    • No known function in males
    • Excessive levels disrupt sexual function in both sexes
  17. Prolactin Secretion
    • Secretion inhibited by Prolactin-Release Inhibiting Hormone secreted by hypothalamus
    • Secretion may be stimulated by an unknown Prolactin-Releasing Factor
  18. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
    (thyrotropin)
    • Glycoprotein
    • Controls release of thyroid hormones and size of thyroid gland
    • Partial control of release of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone by Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone from hypothalamus
  19. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
    • Peptide
    • Controls release of hormones from adrenal cortex
    • Secretion regulated partially by Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone from hypothalamus
    • Stress increases release of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  20. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
    (Gonadotropins)
    • Glycoproteins
    • Females:
    • Controls growth and development of follicles
    • Stimulates secretion of estrogens by follicular cells
    • Males:
    • Stimulates production of sperm
  21. Luteinizing Hormone
    • In both sexes
    • Secretion of sex hormones
    • In females
    • Release of eggs from ovaries
  22. Follicle-StimulatingHormone
    and Luteinizing Hormone
    Control not well understood; however, hypothalamus releases a Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (puberty)
  23. Posterior Pituitary
    • Consists of nerve fibers and neuroglia, instead of the glandular epithelial cells of the anterior pituitary gland
    • Nerve fibers originate in the hypothalamus
  24. Posterior Pituitary Hormones
    • Produced in hypothalamus
    • Transported through nerve axons to posterior pituitary gland
    • Stored as granules in posterior pituitary gland
    • Released to bloodstream from pituitary gland
  25. Posterior Pituitary Hormones
    2 Hormone Types
    • Antidiuretic hormone(vasopressin)
    • Oxytocin
  26. Anti-Diuretic Hormone
    • Short peptide
    • Binds two different receptors
    • Causes kidneys to reduce volume of water excreted
    • Vasoconstrictor, especially in response to significant blood loss
  27. Oxytocin
    • Short peptide
    • Antidiuretic activity
    • Contracts smooth muscles of uterine wall during labor
    • Contracts cells near mammary glands and ducts to release milk upon stimulation by suckling
    • Stimulate movement of fluids in male reproductive tract during sexual activity
  28. Thyroid Gland
    • 2 lateral lobes connected by isthmus and lies just below the larynx
    • Removes iodine from the blood
    • Consists mostly of thyroglobulin for storage
    • Follicular cells secrete hormones
    • Extrafollicular cells secrete other hormones
  29. Hormones produced by Thyroid Gland
    • T3 (triiodothyronine)
    • T4 (thyroxine)
    • Calcitonin
  30. Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine´╗┐
    • Regulate metabolism
    • Essential for normal growth and development of nervous system
    • Controlled by Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone from the anterior p.g.
  31. Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine
    How-Regulate metabolism
    • Increase rate of energy release from carbohydrates
    • Increase rate of protein synthesis
    • Stimulate breakdown and mobilization of lipids
    • Control basal metabolic rate
  32. Calcitonin
    • Produced by nonfollicular cells
    • Controls blood calcium and phosphate ion concentration
    • Inhibits osteoclast breakdown of bone and release of calcium & phosphate ions
    • Stimulates osteoblast activity
    • Controlled by concentration of calcium in blood, gastrin and other digestive hormones
  33. Parathyroid Glands
    • Located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland
    • Typically four parathyroid glands
    • Secretes one hormone
  34. What hormone is secreted by Parathyroid Glands?
    • PTH
    • (parathyroid hormone or parathormone)
  35. Adrenal Glands
    • Closely associated with the kidneys
    • Each sit like a cap on each kidney
    • Hormones are secreted from two different areas of the gland, the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla
    • Numerous hormones are secreted by the adrenal glands
  36. What are the hormones of the Adrenal Medulla?
    • Epinephrine
    • Norepinephrine
  37. What are the hormones of the Adrenal Cortex?
    • Aldosterone
    • Cortisol
    • Adrenal androgens
  38. Pancreas
    • Two types of secrtory tissue
    • Known as a dual functioning organ for exocrine gland and endocrine gland
  39. What hormones are secreted from the islet cells of the pancrease?
    • Alpha cells secrete glucagon
    • Beta cells insulin
    • Delta cells secrete somatostatin
  40. Pineal Gland
    • Secretes melatonin
    • Regulates circadian rhythms
  41. Thymus Gland
    • Secretes thymosins
    • Promotes development of certain lymphocytes\
    • Important in role of immunity
  42. Reproductive Organs
    • Ovaries produce estrogens and progesteroe
    • Testes produce testosterone
    • Placenta produces estrogens, progesterone, and gonadotropin
  43. Types of Stress
    • Physical stress
    • Psychological stress
  44. Exocrine glands
    • Secrete substances
    • Have ducts
    • Products delivered directly to the external environment
  45. *Nervouse System Vs. Endocrine System
    • Communicate using chemical signals that bind to receptor molecules
    • Neurons release neurotransmitters into a synapse affecting postsynaptic cells
    • Endocrine glands release hormones into the bloodstream to cell receptors
    • Paracrine and autocrine glands release hormones to cell receptors
  46. What are the CELLS of the nervous system called?
    Neurons
  47. What are the CHEMICAL SIGNALS of the nervous system called?
    Neutrotransmitter
  48. What is the SPECIFICITY OF ACTION of the nervous system called?
    Receptors on postsynaptic cell
  49. What is the SPEED of the nervous system?
    Seconds
  50. What is the DURATION OF ACTION of the nervous system?
    Very brief unless neuronal activity continues
  51. What are the CELLS of the endocrine system called?
    Glandular epithelium
  52. What are the CHEMICAL SIGNALS of the endocrine system called?
    Hormone
  53. What is the SPECIFICITY OF ACTION of the endocrine system called?
    Receptors on target cell
  54. What is the SPEED of the endocrine system?
    seconds to hours
  55. What is the DURATION OF ACTION of the endocrine system?
    May be brief or may last for days even if secretion ceases
  56. Functions of Hormones
    • Regulate metabolic processes
    • Control rates of certain reactions
    • Help transport substances across membranes
    • Help regulate water balance, electrolyte balance, and blood pressure
    • Are important in reproduction, development, and growth
  57. Amines
    • Formed from- amino acids
    • Ex: Noreprinephrine, epinephrine
  58. Peptides
    • formed from- amino acids
    • Ex: ADH, OT, TRH, SS
  59. Gloycoproteins
    formed from- protein and carbs
  60. Steroids
    • formed from- cholestrol
    • EX: estrogen, testosterone, cortisol
  61. Prostaglandins
    • Are paracrine substances
    • Act locally
    • Are very potent in small amounts
    • Are not stored in cells but synthesized just before release
    • Rapidly inactivated
    • Regulate cellular responses to hormones
    • Can activate or inhibit adenylate cyclase
  62. Effects of Prostaglandins
    • Relax smooth muscles of airways & blood vessels
    • Contract muscles of uterus
    • Stimulate secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex
    • Inhibit secretion of hydrochloric acid from the wall of the stomach
    • Promote inflammation of injured tissue
    • Influence movement of Na+ and water in the kidneys
    • Affect male and female reproductive physiology
  63. Blood
    • Connective tissue
    • Transports vital substances
    • Maintains stability of interstitial fluids & homeostasis
    • Distributes heat
    • Links the internal and external environments
  64. Blood is on average what % of the body weight?
    8
  65. Adult blood volume is how many liters?
    5
  66. Blood Cells
    • “Formed elements”
    • Red blood cells (RBCs)
    • White blood cells (WBCs)
    • Platelets (cell fragments)
    • Form mostly in red bone marrow
  67. What is Plasma conposed of?
    • Water
    • Amino acids
    • Proteins
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Vitamins
    • Hormones
    • Electrolytes
    • Cellular wastes
  68. Origin of Blood Cells
    Red marrow from hemocytoblasts or hematopoietic stem cells
  69. Characteristics of Red Blood Cells
    • Erythrocytes
    • Biconcave discs
    • Able to readily squeeze through capillaries
    • Lack nuclei and mitochondria
  70. Red Blood Cell Volume Ratio
    • One-third hemoglobin:
    • Oxyhemoglobin (bright red)
    • Deoxyhemoglobin (dark red)
    • Other two-thirds of volume:
    • Membrane
    • Water
    • Electrolytes
    • Enzymes
  71. Red Blood Cell Counts
    • 4,600,000 – 6,200,000 in males
    • 4,200,000 –5,400,000 in adult females
    • 4,500,000 – 5,100,000 in children
  72. Location of Red Blood Cell Production
    • During embryonic development: Yolk sac
    • During fetal development:
    • Liver
    • Spleen
    • Later development (Infancy and childhood):
    • Red marrow of bones
    • Adulthood:
    • Red marrow of bones
  73. White Blood Cells
    (leukocytes)
    • Protect against disease
    • Hormones stimulate WBC development
    • Transported to sites of infection by the blood
    • 5 Types of WBCs in circulating blood
  74. Types of White Blood Cells
    • Neutrophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
  75. Granulocytes – granular cytoplasm
    • Neutrophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
    • Characteristics:
    • Twice the size of RBCs
    • Develop in red bone marrow
    • Life span of 12 hours
  76. Agranulocytes – agranular cytoplasm
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
  77. Neutrophils
    • Light purple granules in acid-base stain
    • Number of lobes increases with age
    • First to arrive at infections
    • 54% - 62% of leukocytes
  78. Eosinophils
    • Coarse, deep red granules in acid stain
    • Bi-lobed nucleus
    • Moderate allergic reactions
    • Defend against parasitic worm infestations
    • 1% - 3% of leukocytes
  79. Basophils
    • Deep blue granules in basic stain
    • Similar to eosinophils in size and shape of nuclei
    • Granules can obscure view of nucleus
    • Bi-lobed nucleus
    • Migrate to damaged tissue
    • Release histamine, which promotes inflammation
    • Less than 1% of leukocytes
  80. Monocytes
    • Largest of all blood cells
    • Spherical, kidney-shaped, oval or lobed nuclei
    • 3% - 9% of leukocytes
    • Life span of several weeks to months
  81. Lymphocytes
    • Slightly larger than RBC
    • Large, spherical nucleus surrounded by thin rim of cytoplasm
    • May live for years
    • T cells and B cells
  82. Functions of White Blood Cells
    • WBCs protect against infection
    • Leukocytes can squeeze between the cells of a capillary wall and enter the tissue space outside the blood vessel (called diapedesis)
    • Cellular Adhesion Molecules help direct leukocytes to site of injury
  83. Neutrophils mobility and cation
    • May become so engorged with digestive products & bac toxins that they die
    • Ingest bac and smaller particles.
  84. Monocytes Mobility and Action
    • May become so engorged w/ digestive products & bac toxins that they die
    • ingest larger particles and have lysosomes that release digestive enzymes that break down organic molecules in digested bacteria.
  85. Blood Platelets
    (thrombocytes)
    • Life span of 10 days
    • Cell fragments of megakaryocytes
    • lack a nucleus
    • Roughly half the size of a RBC
    • Help repair damaged blood vessels by sticking to broken surfaces
  86. Blood Plasma
    • Straw colored, clear
    • 55% of blood volume
    • 92% water
    • 8 % complex mixture of organic and inorganic biochemicals
  87. Blood Plasma Function
    • Transports nutrients, gases, and vitamins
    • Helps regulate fluid and electrolyte balance
    • Maintains pH
  88. Hemostasis
    • stoppage of bleeding
    • Actions that limit or prevent blood loss after injury to a blood vessel include:
    • Blood vessel spasm
    • Platelet plug formation
    • Blood coagulation
  89. Blood Vessel Spasm
    • Smooth muscle in blood vessel contracts
    • Effect lasts 30 minutes
    • By the time the effects of the vasospasm wear off, further blood loss is minimized by:
    • Platelet plug formation
    • Blood coagulation
    • Platelet-induced release of serotonin
  90. Platelet Plug Formation
    • Platelets adhere to rough surface to form a plug
    • Shape of platelets changes upon adherence to collagen
    • Platelets adhere to each other to form a plug
    • Larger vessels may require formation of a blood clot
  91. Blood Coagulation
    Most effective hemostatic mechanism

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