Scientific Breakthrough 2013 - Organogenesis

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Scientific Breakthrough 2013 - Organogenesis
2014-04-17 07:29:48

Human Developmental
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  1. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell
  2. Advantages of IPS over Embryonic Stem
    •Easy to acquire

    •No ethical restriction

    •Specific to each patient
  3. Organogenesis Factors
    •Growth Factors (Paracrine Factors)

      –Instructive Induction

    •Extracellular Scaffold

       –Permissive Induction

    •Synchronous Electrical Signal

    •Mechanical Stress
  4. Challenges To Building Heart
    •Scaffold Building

    •Individualized Structure

    •Large Number Of Cells


    • •Proper Developing Condition (Mechanical
    • & Chemical cues)
  5. Previous Breakthrough
    •In 2006, first artificial bladder from sample bladder cells

    •May 2013, artificial trachea using 3D printer

    •Only simple structure organ
  6. Artificial Bladder
    • •Atala and Co. at Wake Forest School of
    • Medicine

    •Fully functional

    •Created from sample bladder cells of children

    2006- Spina bifilda childen from 4-19 years old. Urothelial and muscle cells. Cystoplasty
  7. Bioresorbable Trachea Using 3D Printer
    • •May 2013, Zopf and Co. at University of Michigan created bioresorbable airway splint to treat Tracheobronchomalacia
    • in newborn

    •Using 3D Printer based on CT Scan

    Tracheobronchomalacia– weakness of trachea due to soft cartilage –lead to trachea collapse
  8. 2013– Recellularization Method
    •In July 2013, Harald Ott and Co. at Massachusetts General Hospital

    Fully formed heart from organ donor’s heart scaffold
  9. Decellularization
    • •Combination of detergents and mechanical
    • pressure

    •Very important step

    •Overstripping leads to loss of matrix

    •Understripping leads to immune rejection when transplanted of leftover cells
  10. Recellularization
    • •Repopulate the empty extracellular matrix
    • with IPS cells

    • •Different IPS cells are needed for
    • different types of cell

    • •Heart: Endothelial and myocardial
    • precursor cells

    •Large numbers of cells needed

    •Organogenesis Factors must be met
  11. Transplantation
    •Newly built organ must be transplanted back into patient

    •Most difficult step

    •Must not trigger immune reaction

    •Must be functional

    • •All transplanted artificial organs do not
    • meet function requirement or fail
  12. Future Goal
    • •Optimize method to improve functional
    • capacity

    • •Learn about the structure of
    • extracellular matrix

    • •Develop new method that is independent of
    • donor’s organ

    •Develop partial organ building method