Chapter 18: The Cardiovascular System: The Heart

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Author:
tad.ramage
ID:
270910
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Chapter 18: The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
Updated:
2014-04-17 15:12:30
Tags:
heart cardiovascular pulmonary
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Anatomy and Physiology
Description:
the cardiovascular system
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  1. Heart is a transport system
    two side-by-side pumps
  2. Right side of heart
    • Receives oxygen-poor blood from tissues
    • Pumps to lungs to get rid of carbon dioxide, pick up oxygen via pulmonary circuit
  3. Left side of Heart
    • Receives oxygenated blood from lungs
    • Pumps to body tissues via systemic circuit
  4. Right Ventricle
    Pumps blood through pulmonary circuit
  5. Left ventricle
    Pumps blood through systemic circuit
  6. Heart Anatomy
    • Approximately the size of a fist
    • Base - leans toward right shoulder (posterior surface)
    • Apex - points toward left hip
  7. Pericardium Layers
    • Fibrous Pericardium
    • Serous Pericardium
  8. Fibrous Pericardium
    • Superficial
    • Double-walled sac
    • Protects, anchors to surrounding structures, and prevents overfilling
  9. Serous Pericardium
    • Deep two-layered [parietal layer and visceral layer (epicardium)]
    • Layers separated by fluid-filled pericardial cavity to decrease friction
  10. Parietal layer
    • Part of serous pericardium
    • Lines internal surface of fibrous pericardium
  11. Epicardium
    • Visceral layer of serous pericardium
    • On external surface of heart
  12. Pericarditis
    • Inflammation of pericardium
    • Roughens membrane surfaces - pericardial friction rub heard with stethoscope
    • Cardiac temponade
  13. Pericardial Friction Rub
    creaking sound caused by Pericarditis
  14. Cardiac Tamponade
    • Excess fluid sometimes compresses heart
    • Compression leads to limited pumping ability
  15. Layers of the heart wall
    • Epicardium
    • Myocardium
    • Endocardium
  16. Endocardium
    • Lines heart chambers
    • Covers cardiac skeleton of valves
  17. Myocardium
    • Spiral bundles of contractile cardiac muscle cells
    • Cardiac skeleton: crisscrossing, interlacing layer of connective tissue
  18. Cardiac Skeleton
    • Anchors cardiac muscle fibers
    • Supports great vessels and valves
    • Limits spread of action potential to specific paths
  19. 4 Heart Chambers
    • Two superior atria
    • Two inferior ventricles
  20. Interatrial septum
    separates atria
  21. Interventricular septum
    separates ventricles
  22. Atria
    • The Receiving Chambers
    • Small, thin-walled
    • Contribute little to propulsion of blood
    • Three veins empty into right atrium (superior vena cava - inferior vena cava - coronary sinus)
    • Four pulmonary veins empty into left atrium
  23. Ventricles
    • The Discharging Chambers
    • Most of the volume of heart
    • Right ventricle - most anterior surface, pumps blood into pulmonary trunk
    • Left ventricle - posteroinferior surface, pumps blood into aorta, walls 3x thicker than right ventricle and pumps with greater pressure
    • Thicker walls than atria
    • Actual pumps of heart
  24. Trabeculae carneae
    Irregular ridges of muscle on walls of ventricle
  25. Papillary muscles
    anchor chordae tendineae
  26. Chordae Tendineae
    • "heart strings"
    • Anchor cusps to papillary muscles
    • Hold valve flaps in closed position
  27. Aorta
    Largest artery in body
  28. Heart Valves
    • Ensure unidirectional blood flow through heart 
    • Open and close in response to pressure changes
  29. Atrioventricular valves
    • 2 AV valves
    • Prevent backflow intro atria when ventricles contract
  30. Tricuspid Valve
    right AV valve
  31. Mitral valve
    left av valve / bicuspid valve
  32. AV Valves Open
    • 1 Blood returning to the heart fills atria, pressing against the AV valves - increased pressure forces AV valves open
    • 2 As ventricles fill, AV valve flaps hang limply into ventricles
    • 3 Atria contract, forcing additional blood into ventricles
  33. AV Valves closed
    • 1 Ventricles contract, forcing blood against AV valve cusps
    • 2 AV alves close
    • 3 Papillary muscles contract and chordae tenindeae tight, preventing valve flaps from everting into atria
  34. Semilunar Valves
    • 2 SL valves
    • Prevent backflow into ventricles when ventricles relax
    • Open and close in response to pressure changes
    • Aortic semilunar valve
    • Pulmonary semilunar valve
  35. Semilunar valves open
    As ventricles contract and intraventricular pressure rises, blood is pushed up against semilunar valves, forcing them open
  36. Semilunar valves open
    As ventricles relax and intraventricular pressure falls, blood flows back from arteries, filling the cusps of semilunar valves and forcing them to close
  37. Incompetent valve
    Blood backflows so heart repumps same blood over and over
  38. Valvular stenosis
    Stif flaps - constrict opening, heart must exert more force to pump blood
  39. Heart Murmur
    heart valve doesn't close properly
  40. Pulmonary circuit
    • right atrium - tricuspid valve - right ventricle
    • right ventricle - pulmonary semilunar valve - pulmonary trunk - pulmonary arteries - lungs
    • lungs - pulmonary veins - left atrium
  41. Systemic circuit
    • left atrium - mitral valve (bicuspid) - left ventricle
    • left ventricle - aortic semilunar valve - aorta
    • aorta - systemic circulation
  42. Pathway of Blood Through the Heart
    • Equal volumes of blood pumped to Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits
    • Pulmonary circuit - short, low-pressure circulation
    • Systemic circuit - long, high-friction circulation
    • Anatomy of ventricles reflects differences
    • Left
  43. Coronary Circulation
    • Functional blood supply to heart muscle itself - Delivered when heart relaxed - Left ventricle receives most blood supply
    • Arterial supply varies among individuals
    • Contains many anstomoses (junctions) - provide additional routes for blood delivery
  44. Angina pectoris
    • Thoracic pain caused by fleeting deficiency in blood delivery to myocardium
    • Cell weakened
  45. Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
    • Prolonged coronary blockage
    • areas of cell death repaired with noncontractile scar tissue
  46. Arrhythmias
    Irregular heart rhythms due to uncoordinated contractions
  47. Fibrillation
    • Rapid, irregular heart contractions
    • Circulation stops, brain death occurs
  48. Tachycardia
    • Abnormally fast pulse - >100 bpm
    • Caused by: increased body temp - drugs - stress - heart disease
  49. Bradycardia
    • Slow heart rate - <60
    • Caused by: low body temp - drugs - parasympathetic nervous system activation
    • Consequence of endurance training
  50. Pulmonary Congestion
    • Left side of heart fails
    • Right side continues to pump blood to lungs
    • Blood backs up in the vessels of the lungs
    • Vessels become engorged and will leak into lung tissue
    • Pulmonary edema (swelling)
  51. Peripheral Congestion
    • Right side fails
    • Blood stagnates in the organs
    • Body cells unable to rid of waste products
    • Edema in the extremities

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