Sampling techniques

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Author:
camturnbull
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270923
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Sampling techniques
Updated:
2014-04-17 17:10:13
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Psychology Methodology Sampling camturnbull
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Description:
AQA PSYB4 Research methods, sampling techniques
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  1. What is opportunity sampling?
    The people who are accessible and convenient at the time of sampling are chosen
  2. What is random sampling?
    • Every member of a target population has an equal chance of being selected 
    • The names of everyone in the sample population are collected and numbered 
    • A random number generator is used to choose the participants from the list
  3. What is systematic sampling?
    • Every member of a target population is listed and their name assigned a number 
    • A number is chosen using a random number generator 
    • Every n'th participant is chosen
  4. What is stratified sampling?
    • The target population is divided into categories
    • These categories deal with factors pertinent to the study such as ethnicity 
    • P's are then randomly selected in a proportional amount to the number of people in each category
  5. What are the strengths of opportunity sampling?
    It is not very time consuming as no preparation must be made
  6. What are the strengths of opportunity sampling?
    There is no chance of researcher bias as there is no control over who is selected
  7. What are the strengths of systematic sampling?
    There is no risk of bias as there is no control over who is selected
  8. What are the strengths of stratified sampling?
    • The sample is much more representative of the target population than its counterparts
    • There is no chance of researcher bias as there is no control over who is selected
  9. What are the limitations of opportunity sampling?
    • There is a high risk of bias with researches more likely to choose more approachable people  or people who look like they will provide good results
    • The sample is not likely to be representative of the target population
  10. What are the limitations of random sampling?
    • It is very time consuming as P's must be listed and selected 
    • A sample may accidentally and randomly picked that is not representative of the target population
  11. What are the limitations of stratified sampling?
    • It is very time consuming as P's must be listed and a number generated randomly 
    • A hidden pattern could occur meaning the sample is not as representative as one that would be gained through stratified sampling
  12. What are the limitations of stratified sampling
    • There is possibility for bias to come into play if the categories are chosen by the researchers 
    • Choosing categories, ranking P's and randomly selecting them is very time consuming
  13. How might sampling bias manifest itself?
    Through the over representation of a section of a target population in a sample
  14. How might one reduce the risk of sampling bias?
    Through the use of a larger sample size
  15. Why should sampling methods be published in studies?
    To allow the reader to decide whether the results can be generalised or if they are corrupted by bias
  16. How might the length of a study affect sample size?
    During longitudinal studies P's might feel the need to withdraw making the study less representative as it no longer represents people who may withdraw
  17. Why might volunteers not necessarily give a representative sample?
    The people who wouldn't volunteer could have different characteristics and are not sampled
  18. How might the generalisation of a study be limited due to historical factors?
    The research could be time bound and no longer apply to the population in a different time
  19. How might the generalisation of a study be limited due to its setting?
    Studies done in lab settings are artificial and might not be generalisable to the 'real world'
  20. How might the generalisation of a study be limited due to the culture of those sampled?
    • Other cultures could contain individuals who would react differently to the variables investigated 
    • If only one culture/ethnicity is studied then the theory cannot be said to be universally generalisable

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