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What are experimental designs?
The way in which P's are organised to take part in an experiment
What are the features of the Independent Groups design?
- Different groups of P's are used in the first condition
- A different group of P's are used in the second condition
What are the features of the Repeated Measures design?
Each participant partakes in both experimental conditions
What are the features of the Matched Pairs Design?
- P's are arranged into pairs that are similar in important ways for the study
- One member of the pair partakes in one experimental condition whereas the other member partakes in the other
What are the strengths of Independent Groups?
- Different P's are used in different groups so there is a reduced likelihood of order effects and demand characteristics
- Random allocation could be used to reduce individual differences
What are the strengths of Repeated Measures?
- No individual differences or participant variables can come into play
- A smaller sample size is needed
- In order for the groups to be counterbalanced they could be split into 2 with one doing condition B then A, and the other doing the opposite
What are the strengths of Matched Pairs?
- There is a reduced likelihood of participant variables
- There are no order effects
- The likelihood of demand characteristics is reduced
What are the limitations of Independent Groups?
- Individual differences/participant variables could affect results
- A large number of P's must be sampled meaning sampling is harder and more time consuming
What are the limitations of Repeated Measures?
- Order effects are likely to occur
- P's are exposed to both conditions meaning demand characteristics are more likely to occur
What are the limitations of Matched Pairs?
- The matching and ranking of groups combined wit the sampling of P's is very time consuming and difficult
- Some people or characteristics cannot be matched
What are order effects?
The difference in performance or behaviour of a P' in subsequent tasks as they are affected by fatigue or practice
How can order effects be counteracted?
- Through counterbalancing
- Half of the sample does the experimental condition in one order with the other half doing it in the opposite order
How might a researcher attempt to limit the effects of demand characteristics?
By using a single blind method in which the P' does not know the IV or which condition they are in
How might a researcher attempt to limit researcher effects?
- By using a double blind method in which neither the P' nor the researcher knows the IV of the experiment
- This helps limit the unconscious influence of the experimenters' expectations on their behaviour towards the P's
What are demand characteristics?
- The altering of a P's behaviour due to the fact that they have discerned the object of the experiment
- They might try to behave in a way that they believe the researcher wants them to (please you)
- They might attempt to sabotage the experiment (screw you)