Proteins, Enzymes, Mutations Quest

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Proteins, Enzymes, Mutations Quest
2014-04-18 05:37:02
biology test quiz proteins enzymes mutations

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  1. What is a mutation?
    Change in DNA sequence for any protein
  2. 3 possible mutations
    point, deletions, insertions
  3. What is the function of ribosomes
    Ribosomes convert mRNA into amino acids in order to create proteins.
  4. What are enzymes made up of?
    Amino acids
  5. Describe the process of a digestive emzyne
    Enzymes have active sites that natch with certain molecules; the final product is the bonding or breaking apart of molecules
  6. What does milk contain?
    Lactose sugar which is a carbohydrate
  7. Lactose
    A disaccharide; made up of one glucose molecule and one galactose (both 6 sided sugars)
  8. What is & what does lactase do?
    Lactase is a digestive enzyme found in the human intestine that breaks lactose down into galactose and glucose
  9. What is the difference between lactose & sucrose?
    Lactose has one galactose molecule while sucrose has one fructose molecule; both have one glucose molecule though
  10. What effect does lactase have on lactose?
    Lactose is broken down by lactase
  11. When is glucose present?
    With milk and lactase
  12. 1st step in creating a protein
  13. Where does transcription take place?
  14. What are some functions of proteins in the body?
    help make up cell structures, help fight disease
  15. 3 steps for a gene to produce a functioning protein
    transcription, transition, protein synthesis
  16. what is stored in the nucleus of each cell?
  17. What happens during transcription?
    During transcription DNA is coped & travels to the cell's cytoplasm
  18. What is the job of the protein keratin?
    Keratin makes up skin cell structures
  19. What is the job of RNA polymerase?
    The RNA polymerase copies the double helix information
  20. a-u, t-a, g-c, c-g
  21. What is this RNA strand called?
    Keratin gene
  22. Where does the single-stranded molecule move to within the cell?
  23. What is the job of the mRNA?
    mRNA transports copied genetic info from the cell's nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it's turned into protein
  24. Describe the process of translation
    The process of translation is when an mRNA molecule's nucleotide sequence is converted into something that protein-making machinery can read
  25. Describe structure/ function of a ribosome
    2 subunits makeup ribosomes (1 large & 1 small). Ribosomes are what convert the mRNA code  into amino acid, amino acid makes up protein
  26. What are the subunits of proteins?
    Amino acids
  27. How many sub units exist?
  28. Describe how a ribosome reads the mRNA molecule that was produced during transcription
    Ribosomes read 3 of the mRNA molecule's nucleotides at a time. One set of 3 molecules (a.k.a. codon) equals one amino acid
  29. What important enzyme is present during transcription?
    RNA polymerase is present, & it binds DNA & seperates it by 2 strands
  30. Purpose of DNA transcription
    To create proteins for the body
  31. Genes
    Info that codes for a specific trait
  32. 3 differences between DNA & RNA
    deoxyribose (DNA) vs ribose (RNA), DNA is double-stranded & RNA is single- stranded, DNA is T-A G-C while RNA is A-U, G-c, T-A
  33. Job of mRNA (messenger RNA)
    copy DNA gene sequence
  34. transfer RNA
    Carries amino acids to ribosome
  35. Define transcription
    Copying DNA into RNA
  36. Describe the job of RNA polymerase during transcription
    separate hydrogen bonds b/w dna bases to create mRNA
  37. What is a protein?
    chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds
  38. What is the genetic code?
    instructions found in the mRNA
  39. Define translation
    decoding mRNA sequence into amino acid chains or polypeptide
  40. What are examples of proteins in our bodies?
    keratin & collagen; muscles/ tendons; hemoglobin
  41. Point mutation
    A change in any single nucleotide of a DNA sequence
  42. Deletions
    The loss of one or more nucleotides in a DNA sequence
  43. Insertions
    The addition of one or more extra nucleotides in a DNA sequence
  44. 3 possible results from point mutation, deletion, or insertion
    silent mutation, missense mutation, nonsense mutation
  45. Silent mutation
    The mutation does not result in a change in the amino acid sequence. RESULT= Normal, fully functional protein
  46. Missense mutation
    A mutation that causes one amino acid in the protein sequence to be changed to a different one. RESULT= Abnormal, partially or non-functioning protein
  47. Nonsense mutation
    A mutation that results in a stop codon where there used to be a codon for an amino acid. This results in translation being stopped before the primary structure of the protein is complete. RESULT= No protein made