Methods of Research

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Author:
camturnbull
ID:
270940
Filename:
Methods of Research
Updated:
2014-04-17 19:58:52
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Psychology Methodology
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Description:
AQA PSYB4 Research Methods
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  1. What are the strengths of Experiments?
    • There is a strong control of all variables allowing for a more accurate prediction of cause and effect 
    • Complex machinery is easier to use in this setting
  2. What are the limitations of Experiments?
    • There is more chance of demand characteristics in a lab 
    • The setting is artificial meaning there is a lower ecological validity
  3. What are the advantages of open questionnaires?
    • Anonymity means that sensitive information is more likely to be divulged 
    • A large range of contextual qualitative data can be collected and analysed
  4. What are the advantages of closed questionnaires?
    • Anonymity means that sensitive information is more likely to be divulged 
    • The responses can be narrowed down into quantitative data allowing for statistical testing of results and comparisons
  5. What are the limitations of open questionnaires?
    • A large mass of qualitative data is often difficult to analyse 
    • People might wish to be perceived by the researcher in a certain way and alter their responses accordingly 
    • Some people might enter an autonomous state whilst answering questions, not giving their own opinions and experiences
  6. What are the limitations of closed questionnaires?
    • Purely quantitative data does not offer context or background to the responses
    • People might wish to be perceived by the researcher in a certain way and alter their responses accordingly Some people might enter an autonomous state whilst answering questions, not giving their own opinions and experiences
  7. What are the strengths of structured interviews?
    • They are much more replicable than unstructured ones 
    • Questions are direct and targeted meaning only useful information is gathered, saving the researcher time whilst analysing the results
  8. What are the strengths of unstructured interviews?
    • A large amount of contextual qualitative data is collected meaning researchers have a better understanding of why P's answered questions in certain ways 
    • Interesting responses can be followed up in further questions
  9. What are the limitations of structured interviews?
    • The rigid and uniform procedure might cause some P's anxiety 
    • Interesting responses cannot be followed up in further questioning
  10. What are the limitations of unstructured interviews?
    • There is no set procedure so studies are less replicable 
    • Interviewees might go off on tangents due to the lack of structure, giving irrelevant information meaning the researcher must spend longer analysing the results for useful data 
    • Results cannot be statistically tested or compared with ease
  11. What are the features of Observation?
    • The behaviour of a P', often in a natural setting, is observed and recorded 
    • In participant observation, the researcher takes part in the observation 
    • In non participant observation, the researcher observes from a distance 
    • In covert observation, the observer is hidden with the P' unaware of their presence 
    • In overt observation, the P' is aware of the presence of the researcher
  12. What are the strengths of observation?
    • Researchers can directly observe behaviour instead of relying on self reports that are often subject to bias and demand characteristics 
    • The ecological validity is high as variables are not always manipulated
  13. What are the limitations of case studies?
    • It is not possible to reliably observe thoughts and feelings 
    • The observations could be affected by observer bias 
    • Demand characteristics are much more likely to occur if the P' knows they are being observed
  14. What are the strengths of case studies?
    • They allow a pattern of behaviour to be observed as they take place over a long period of time 
    • An account of someone's life is high in ecological validity as few variables are manipulated 
    • They are often efficient and capable of disproving theories (HM, multi store model)
  15. What are the limitations of case studies?
    • Each issue is unique so they cannot be generalised to the general population 
    • Retrospective accounts are often unreliable and inaccurate (telescoping)
    • There is a high risk of researcher bias (freud sourcing case studies from supporters)
    • The interpretations of case studies are often subjective 
    • The right to withdraw and anonymity should be considered
  16. What is content analysis?
    The analysis of secondary material in order to give insight into human thought or behaviour
  17. What are the strengths of content analysis?
    • They allow people who are difficult to access to be assessed 
    • There are no ethical issues
  18. What are the limitations of content analysis?
    • There is no direct contact with the patient so behaviour could be misinterpreted 
    • There is often very little contextual information available
  19. What are correlation studies?
    • The statistical measurement of two sets of data for one participant 
    • The relationship between the data sets is measured
  20. What are the strengths of correlation studies?
    • Allows for reliable measurement of relationships between variables 
    • Allows researchers to conduct further research
  21. What are the limitations of correlation studies?
    There is no manipulation of variables meaning cause and effect cannot be established

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