Normal cranio facial development

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Normal cranio facial development
2014-04-19 15:04:43

Exam II Obio Dr. Cray
Show Answers:

  1. What cell lineage is responsbile for the branchial arches?
    Neural crest cells

    primary palate 5 weeks

    secondary palate 7 weeks
  2. When does branchial arch development appear?
    4-5 weeks
  3. What cells contribute to formation of the facial skeleton?
    Neural crest cells
  4. What are the arches?
    • 1: V2 and V3
    • 2: VII
    • 3: IX
    • 4: X, superior laryngeal
    • 6: X, recurrent laryngeal
  5. What do the pharyngeal pouches form?
  6. Nose is formed by
  7. Five mesenchymal prominences appear at week 4:
  8. What forms the nasolacrimal duct?
    Merging of maxillary prominence and the lateral nasal prominence
  9. What forms the philtrum, premaxilla, and the incisors?
    median nasal prominence, forms the intermaxillary segment
  10. What forms the nasal septum?
    The frontal prominence
  11. What factors are involved in lip fusion?
    SHH, MSX1 and MSX2, BMP and FGF
  12. When and from what does the definitive palate form?
    6 weeks, from the maxillary prominence (palatine shelves)

    7 weeks, begin fusion with primary palate
  13. The development of the skull is divided into?
    • 1. Neurocranium: membranous and chondrocranium
    • 2. Viscerocranium: skeleton of the skull
  14. Intramembranous ossification of bone is completed by which bones?
    Face, vault, mandible, clavicle, distal tips of phalanges
  15. Endochorondal ossification is completed by which bones?
    The rest of the skull
  16. In endochondral ossification where is primary center and secondary center?
    Primary: diaphysis

    Secondary: proximal and distal epiphyses
  17. What are the steps in endchondral ossification?
  18. When does the frontal bone (metopic suture) close?
    Begins 2 years, fused by 8-12 years
  19. When does symphysis menti fuse?
  20. When does the spheno-occipital synchondroses fuse?
    18-25 yrs
  21. When does the spheno-ethmoidal synchondroses fuse?
  22. Which bones form from the neural crest cells (blue) and which from paraxial mesoderm (red)?
  23. What are the layers of the membranous neurocranium?
    1. Endomeninx (inner layer): neural crest origin and forms the pia and arachnoid mater

    2. Ectomeninx (outer layer): neural crest and mesoderm and forms dura mater, calvaria, pericranium
  24. Bony ossification centers and appearance during fetal development?
    • 1) 2 months: frontal, parietal, occipital, sq. temporal
    • 2) 3 months: tympanic ring
  25. What are the four fontanels?
    • a. Anterior (bregmatic): largest, persists til 2yrs of age
    • b. Posterior (lambda): triangular, persists 2months
    • c. Sphenoidal: smaller, persists 3 months
    • d. Mastoidal: smaller, persists 2 years
  26. What are the functions of the sutures?
    1. sites of bone growth

    2. articulations, minor movements for birthing

    3. mechanical shock absorber
  27. What is the life cycles of a suture?
    1. Presumptive: undiff, wide

    2. Definitive: well diff, narrow, interdigitated

    3. Fusing: collagenous bundles then bony spicules, eventually obliterate
  28. What signals to the sutures for them to progress through cycle?

    • 1. Pericranium
    • 2. Periosteum
    • 3. Bone (osteogenic fronts)
    • 4. Dura mater
  29. What factors regulate the suture?
  30. How many arches comprise the tongue?
    4 (1-4) appears 4 weeks in development
  31. What arch forms the epiglottis?
  32. In development how does the thyroid gland form?
    Epithelial proliferation between tuberculum impar and the copula
  33. Tooth development begins?
    6 weeks

    • Bud
    • Cap: ODE, IDE, Stellate recti, Dental papilla
    • Bell: Dentin, Enamel form