Presidents 1-10

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  1. Judiciary Act
    • Washington
    • established the judicial courts of the united states and determines jurisdiction
    • allowed Marbury v. Madison
  2. Whiskey Rebellion
    • Washington
    • Washington made new taxes to help pay off war debt
    • farmers who grew grain to make whiskey were angry bc they couldn't afford it
    • they rebelled
    • Hamilton wants govt. to look strong so the govt. stopped the rebellion
    • Washington proved that the fed. govt. could make people obey law
  3. French Revolution
    • Washington 
    • Began in 1789 with some nonviolent restrictions on the king 
    • became more hostile in 1792 when France declared war on Austria
    • Seeking help from America, the French pointed to the Franco-American alliance of 1778
    • Not wanting to get involved for fear of damage to the trade business, Washington gave the Neutrality Proclamation, which made America neutral
    • led to arguments between Americans and French
    • after fighting with the French over such things as the Jay Treaty, the Americans came to peace with France in 1800
  4. Pickney Treaty with Spain
    • Washington
    • Gave America what they demanded from the Spanish
    • Free navigation of the Mississippi, large area north of Florida (helped America to have unexpected diplomatic success)
    • Jay Treaty helped prompt the Spanish to deal with the port of New Orleans
  5. Jay Treaty
    • Washington 
    • Britain would leave America alone
    • Britain would not leave American ships alone and decided Americans owed pre-revolutionary war debts
  6. Farewell Address
    • Washington 
    • stressed that we should stay away from permanent alliances with foreign countries
  7. Bank of US
    • Washington 
    • first chartered by the US Congress on February 25, 1791 after being proposed by Alexander Hamilton (Secretary of the Treasury) in 1790
    • purpose for the bank was to handle the financial needs and requirments of the new central government of the newly formed United States
  8. XYZ Affair
    • John Adams 
    • 3 american delegates sent to France to negotiate
    • caused by British and French threatening American shipping
    • French bribe delegates but US leaves
  9. Alien and Sedition Acts
    • John Adams 
    • Four laws against the French as a result of the XYZ Affair, considered to be unconstitutional
    • Said that a person arriving in the United States had to wait 14 years to become a citizen
    • Made it a crime for anyone to write or print articles criticizing the government
  10. KY and VA Resolutions
    • John Adams 
    • written by James Madison (Virginia) and Thomas Jefferson (Kentucky)
    • supported the idea of having more self government and more rights for states
    • opposed the Alien and Sedition Acts which extended the powers of the federal national
  11. Midnight Judges
    • John Adams 
    • Congress reduced the number of Supreme Court justices, but greatly increased the number of federal judges
    • President Adams with Federalists quickly filled the new federal judge positions in the last hours of his presidency
    • ensured that the Federalists still had a hold on part of the government
  12. Marbury v Madison
    • Jefferson 
    • establishes judicial review as a check on legislative power
  13. Louisiana Purchase
    • Jefferson
    • doubled the size of the US
  14. Lewis and Clark
    • Jefferson 
    • 1804-1806
    • traveled up the Missouri River, through the Rockies, and to the mouth of the Columbia River
    • bolstered America's claim to western lands as well as opening the west to Indian trade and further exploration
  15. 12th Amendment
    • Jefferson 
    • states that if no presidential candidate gets a majority of the electoral votes then the House of Representatives decides among the top three
  16. Embargo Act
    • Jefferson 
    • closed America for trade
  17. Non-Intercourse Act
    • Jefferson 
    • opened trade to America expect to France and Britain
  18. Macon Act
    • Madison 
    • Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first
  19. War Hawks
    • Madison 
    • Western settlers who advocated war with Britain because they hoped to acquire Britain's northwest posts, and because they felt the British were aiding the Indians and encouraging them to attack the Americans on the Frontier
  20. War of 1812
    • Madison 
    • war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier
  21. Hartford Convention
    • Madison 
    • meeting of New England Federalists held in Hartford Connecticut in the winter of 1814-15
    • these Federalist opposed the War of 1812 and held the convention to discuss and seek redress by Washington for their complaints and wrongs that the felt had been done
  22. First Protective Tariff
    • Madison 
    • created primarily to shield New England manufacturers from the inflow of British goods after the War of 1812
    • helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods
  23. McCulloch v Maryland
    • Monroe 
    • bank was constitutional
  24. Dartmouth v Woodward
    • Monroe 
    • proclaimed the corporation charters such as the one the colonial legislature had granted the college were contracts and this inavidable
  25. Gibbons v. Ogden
    • Monroe 
    • congress regulated trade
  26. Acquisition of Florida
    • Monroe 
    • Florida Purchase Treaty
    • Under the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain sold Florida to the U.S., and the U.S. gave up its claims to Texas. gave american southwest to spain
  27. Adams-Onis Treaty
    • Monroe 
    • known as transcontinental treaty
    • purchased Florida from Spain
  28. Missouri Compromise
    • Monroe 
    • The South won Missouri as a slave state
    • North won Maine and the right to forbid slavery in the remaining territories
  29. Monroe Doctrine
    • Monroe 
    • statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere
  30. Sectional Tariff
    • Monroe 
    • protective tariff in the United States designed to protect American industry in the face of cheaper British commodities
  31. Corrupt Bargain
    • JQ Adams 
    • political scandal
    • Henry Clay, allegedly met with John Quincy Adams before the House election to break a deadlock
    • Adams was elected president against the popular vote and Clay was named Secretary of State
  32. Erie Canal
    • JQ Adams
    • canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean
    •  cut transport costs into what was then wilderness by about 90%
    • Canal resulted in a massive population surge in western New York, and opened regions further west to increased settlement
  33. Tariff of Abominations
    • JQ Adams
    • Tariff of 1828
    • protected the North but harmed the South
    • South claimed that it was discriminatory and unconstitutional
  34. Calhouns Protest
    • JQ Adams 
    • South Carolina Exposition 
    • protested tariff of Abominations
  35. Jacksonian Democracy
    • Jackson 
    • The idea of spreading political power to the people and ensuring majority rule as well as supporting the "common man"
  36. Tariffs of 1832 and 1833
    • Jackson 
    • 1832-passed as a reduced tariff to conciliate the South by lowering the Tariff of 1828, but it was still deemed unsatisfactory by southerners
    • 1833-Henry Clay's compromise tariff that would gradually reduce the Tariff of 1832 by about 10% over a period of 8 years
  37. 2nd Bank of the US
    • Jackson
    • Chartered in 1816 for 20 years
    • part of Henry Clay's American System
    • Jackson would veto the bank during his presidency
    • head of the bank was Nicolas Biddle.
  38. Whig Party
    • Jackson
    • American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats
    • advocated for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements
    • viewed President Jackson as King Andrew I and their candidate was William Henry Harrison
  39. Panic of 1837
    • Van Buren
    • Bank of the U.S. failed
    • cotton prices fell
    • businesses went bankrupt
    • there was widespread unemployment and distress
    • short-lived and reduced the pressure on the economy
  40. Specie Circular (Death of 2nd BUS)
    • Van Buren 
    • issued by President Jackson in 1836
    • meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it
    • required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie
    • stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply
    • panic of 1837 followed
  41. Wildcat Banks
    • Van Buren
    • unstable banking institutions that issued paper money called wildcat currency to lend to speculators
    • operated under state charters and were especially numerous after Jackson defeated the second B.U.S.
    • didn't require collateral for loans so farmers took out loans, bought land, lost money on the land, defaulted on their loans, and then the banks started to fail
  42. Webster Ashburton Treaty
    • Tyler
    • signed August 9, 1842
    • treaty resolving several border issues between the United States and the British North American colonies, particularly a dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border
    • banned the slave trade (on the ocean)
Card Set:
Presidents 1-10
2014-04-18 04:15:34

us presidents 1-10
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