Ch. 28: Protists

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Ninimew
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Ch. 28: Protists
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2014-04-18 11:30:30
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  1. protists
    • mostly unicellular eukaryotes: simplest eukaryotes
    • 0.5-2 micrometers in diameter (small as many prokaryotes)
    • Some are more closely related to plants, fungi, or animals than they are to other protists.
  2. Unicellular protists carry out the same functions as multicellular organisms by using __ instead of multicellular organs.
    subcellular organelles
  3. Compared to other eukaryotes, protists are nutritionally __.
    diverse: meaning they can be photoautotrophs, heterotrophs, or mixotrophs (combination of the 2)
  4. How do protists reproduce?
    highly varied: some sexually, some asexually
  5. What gave rise to enormous diversity of protists that exist today?
    • endosymbiosis
    • First eukaryotes acquired mitochondria by engulfing an aerobic prokaryote.
    • An additional endosymbiont is a photosyntetic cynobacterium that evolved into plastids.
    • Plastids gave rise to 2 lineages of photosynthetic protists, or algae
  6. DNA of plastid genes in red and green algae closely resemble the DNA of
    cyanobacteria
  7. During eukaryotic evolution, red and green algae underwent __.
    secondary endosymbiosis: They were ingested in the food vacuoles of heterotrophic eukaryotes and became endosymbionts themselves.
  8. Excavata
    • include diplomonads, parabasalids, and euglenozoans
    • Molecular data indicate they are monophyletic. (only a hypothesis)
  9. Diplomonads and Parasabalids both
    • lack plastids
    • have modified/reduced mitochondria
    • found in anaerobic environments
    • Many are parasites
  10. The modified mitochondria in Diplomonads are called __ and differ from regular mitochondria, because __.
    mitosomes; They lack functional electron transport from carbs and other organic molecules. Instead, they get energy from anaerobic chemical pathways.
  11. structure of Diplomonads
    • 2 equal-sized nuclei
    • multiple flagella
  12. Giardia intestinalis (lamblia) is
    a diplomonad (parasite) which inhabits the intestines of mammals
  13. The modified mitochondria in Parabasalids are called __ and they generate energy by __.
    hydrogenosomes; releasing hydrogen gas as a byproduct (anaerobically)
  14. Trichomonas vaginalis is
    a parabasalid; sexually transmitted parasite that travels along the mucus-coated lining of the human reproductive and urinary tract by moving its flagella and by undulating part of its plasma membrane
  15. Euglenozoans belong to a diverse clade that includes
    predatory heterotrophs, photosynthetic autotrophs, and parasites
  16. The main morphological feature that distinguishes euglenozoans is
    the presence of a rod with either a spiral or crystalline structure inside each of their flagella
  17. Kinetoplastids
    • a group of Euglenozoans
    • have a single, large mitochondrion that contains a organized mass of DNA called a kinetoplast
    • include species that feed on prokaryotes in freshwater, marine, and moist terrestrial ecosystems
    • also species that parasitize animals, plants, and other protists
  18. Trypanosomes are
    a genus of kinetoplastids (Euglenozoan) which infect humans and cause sleeping sickness, also causes Chagas' disease
  19. Euglenid
    • a group of Euglenozoans
    • has a pocket at one end from which 1 or 2 flagella emerge
    • mixotrophs

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