Chapter 32

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Chapter 32
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  1. Modes of nutrition for eukaryotes
    • Plants - autotrophs
    • fungi - heterotrophs
  2. unlike plants and fungi animal cell walls lack
    structural support
  3. tissue
    groups of cells that have a common structure function or both
  4. cleavage
    zygote undergoes a succession of mitotic cell divisions without cell growth between the divisions
  5. blastula
    • hollow ball¬†
    • caused by cleavage
  6. gastrulation
    layers of embryonic tissues develop
  7. embryonic development steps
    • zygote
    • cleavage
    • blastula
    • gastrulation
    • gastrula
  8. larva
    • sexually immature
    • morphologically distinct from adult
    • eats different food
    • may have different habitat
  9. metamorphosis
    • developmental transformation
    • turns into juvenile
    • not yet sexually mature
  10. homeoboxes
    regulate gene expressions
  11. hox genes
    • not present in sponges
    • regulate the formation of anterior-posterior axis
  12. %of all animal species that are extinct
    99%
  13. closest living relative of animals
    choanoflagellates
  14. first fossils of animals
    565 to 550 million years ago
  15. Ediacaran biota
    • soft-bodied multicellular eukaryotes
    • first animal fossils
  16. Paleoxoic era
    • 542-251 million years ago
    • contains the Cambrian period
  17. Cambrian explosion
    • wave of animal diversification
    • 535-525 million years ago
    • more oxygen became available
    • predators became more mobile
    • prey became better armored
    • hox genes created genetic changes
  18. Eras
    • paleozoic era 542-251 million years ago
    • mesozoic era 251-65.5 million years ago
    • conozoic era 65.5 million years ago
  19. Mesozoic era
    • 251-65.5 million years ago
    • coral reefs formed
    • reptiles returned to water, large predators
    • tetrapods grew wings
    • large and small dinosaurs emerged
    • first mammals
  20. Cenozoic era
    • 65.5 million to present
    • mass extinction
    • large nonflying dinosaurs and marine reptile extinct
    • rise in mammals
    • climate cooled
  21. body plan
    particular set of morphological and developmental traits
  22. radial symmetry
    symmetry of a flower pot
  23. bilateral symmetry
    • two sided symmetry¬†
    • like a showel
  24. dorsal
    top side
  25. ventral
    bottom side
  26. anterior
    front end
  27. posterior
    back end
  28. cephalization
    having sensory equipment near the head
  29. do sponges have tissues
    no, they lack true tissues
  30. Germ layer
    layers that form various tissues and organs of the body
  31. endoderm
    • innermost germ layer
    • lines the pouch of gastrulation
    • digestive track and liver and lungs
  32. ectoderm
    the germ layer covering surface of the embryo
  33. diploblastic
    • animals that only have one germ layer
    • endoderm or ectoderm
    • cndiarians
  34. Mesoderm
    • third layer
    • bilateral symmetry animals
    • space between ectoderm and endoderm
    • forms muscle and most other organs
  35. triploblastic
    having three germ layers
  36. Body cavity
    • fluid or air filled space
    • located between the digestive tract and outer body wall
  37. coelom
    • body cavity
    • formed from mesoderm
    • create structures that suspend internal organs
  38. coelomates
    animals with coelom
  39. pseudocoelom
    • body cavity
    • triploblastic animals
    • forms from mesoderm and endoderm
  40. pseudocoelomates
    forms from mesoderm and endoderm
  41. acoelomates
    lacking body cavity altogether
  42. functions of body cavity
    • fluid cushions the suspended organs
    • allows organs to grow freely from outer surface
  43. two developmental modes
    • protostome development
    • deuterostome development
  44. Protostome development
    • spiral cleavages
    • determinate cleavage
  45. spiral cleavage
    planes of cell division are diagonal to vertical axis
  46. determinate cleavage
    • cell division in which the fate and role of the cell is determined really early
    • (if you remove a cell, it will only grow into a part, not a whole animal)
  47. deuterostome
    • radial cleavage
    • indeterminate cleavage
  48. radial cleavage
    paralel or perpendicular to vertical axis
  49. indeterminate cleavage
    each cell produced by early divisions can develop into a complete embryo
  50. archenteron
    • digestive tube of embryo
    • becomes the gut
  51. blastopore
    an indent during gastrulation which leads to formation of archenteron
  52. 5 points on animal phylogeny
    • all animals have a common ancestor
    • sponges are basal animals
    • eumetazoa is a clade of animals with true tissues
    • most animal phyla belong to Bilateria
    • Chordates and some other phyla belong to the clade Deuterostomia
  53. eumetozoans
    • true animals
    • true tissues
  54. bilaterians
    • having bilateral symmetry
    • presence of three germ layers
  55. Deuterostomia
    includes vertebraes and chordates
  56. 3 major clades of bilaterally symetrical animals
    • Deuterostomia
    • Lophotrochozoa
    • Ecdysozoa
  57. acoela
    • flatworms
    • basal bilaterians
  58. the rest of flatworms
    platyhelminthes
  59. ecdysozoans
    • nematoads, arthropods¬†
    • external skeletons
  60. ecdysis
    shedding old exoskeleton
  61. Lophotrochozoa
    • ciliated tentacles
    • feeding
    • molluscs and annelids
  62. lophophore
    • ciliated tentacles for feeding
    • lophotrochozoans
    • molluscs and annelids
  63. trochophore larva
    developmental stage of lophotrochozoans

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