782 - Psychometrics Reading

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Anonymous
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270980
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782 - Psychometrics Reading
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2014-04-18 08:48:41
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Psychology
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Psychometrics Reading
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  1. Major areas of psychological functioning in the normal development of infants, children, adolescents, adults, and elderly people:
    • Cognitive
    • Academic
    • Personality
    • Adaptive behaviour
  2. Standardization Procedures
    - Standardization of any test of intelligence needs to be based on systematic stratification on the following variables:
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Education/occupation (or both)
    • Geographic region
    • Urban vs rural place of residence
  3. Standardization Procedures
    - Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R)
    Represents the ultimate in adult norming of a Wechsler battery
  4. Standardization Procedures
    - Same standardization procedure as WAIS-R used in development of:
    • Revised Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales
    • Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC)
    • Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT)
  5. Norming Procedures
    - Appropriate standardization...
    Renders it possible to develop national norms for the valid interpretation of the meaning of a person's score on the standardized test
  6. Norming Procedures
    - Raw test scores are converted into several primary derived scores
    • Standard scores
    • National percentile ranks
    • Age equivalents
  7. Norming Procedures
    - Norm
    Refers to the average score (performance) of a standardization sample
  8. Norming Procedures
    - Important feature...
    • Is the use of overlap samples to provide comparative information for a given subject on one or more tests 
    • - might be used to supplement the information derived from the instrument of focus
    • - or provide specific information on a certain components test validity
  9. Norming Procedures
    - E.g. A direct comparison of both cognitive and adaptive behavior in a child cannot be made in the usual circumstance if:
    • The instruments used to evaluate the child have been normed on different standardization samples. Vineland standardization programme included two overlap samples
    • - 719 children randomly selected from national standardization sample or K-ABC - administered both the revised Vineland and K-ABC
    • - 2,018 children randomly drawn from the revised Vineland standardization sample - administered both the Vineland and the revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R)
  10. Norming Procedures
    - NB: A sample is overlapped in that......
    The participants are selected from the original standardization sample and given the test again as well as other test(s). The sample thus overlaps with the original larger sample In the example, this was done for the K-ABC and the Vineland scales. The new tables of norms will then show ranges of scores on the K-ABC, Vineland and the Peabody tests
  11. Norming Procedures
    - Single most valuable derived score is...
    • Development of a series of standard scores that can be used to determine level of functioning of an individual in comparison with their standardization peers, in terms of a percentile rank
    • Usual procedure is to express a given standard score on a normative sample mean of 100, with a SD +-15
    • The typical Vineland subtext score for intelligence/IQ tests is often based on a mean of 10 and a SD +-3
    • - KAIT - one can expect that 99% of a normal sample would produce standard scores in a given subtest between a range of 1 and 19
  12. Norming Procedures
    - Confidence Interval/Bands of Error:
    Were constructed to take into account the standard error of measurement of the test instrument - that amount of test-retest variability that is expected to occur on the basis of inherent imprecision of the assessment instrument itself
  13. Norming Procedures
    - Additional ways of interpreting scores often  include:
    • Age equivalents - raw score value is read from a smoothed curve
    • - advantage of being easily understood by persons unfamiliar with statistics
    • - raw score distributions can be very uneven or skewed
    • Provides rational for developing descriptive categories e.g. maladaptive levels and corresponding percentile ranks used to classify a raw score
    • - nonsignificant - 50th percentile and below
    • - intermediate - 51st-84th percentile
    • - significant - 85th percentile or higher
  14. Test Reliability
    - Internal Consistency:
    A form or reliability - defines the extent to which items in a test, domain, subdomain, or subtest, hang together

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