RT Study

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  1. Describe Dobutamine drug
    • 1.Positive inotrope
    • 2.increases cardiac output w/o increasing O2 demand of the heart
    • 3. Helps contractility 
    • 4. diuretic-vasodilator
  2. Describe Nitropusside (Nipride)
    • 1. Dilates veins & arteries 
    • 2. Decreases cardiac workload
    • 3. Decreases preload & afterload
    • 4. Decrease systemic, hypertension →
    • hypotension ↓ cardiac output

    5. light sensitive
  3. Treatments for CHF
    Diuresis or improve contractility
  4. The drug that gets rid of extra fluid
    diuretic drug...Furosemide (Lasix)
  5. The drug that decreases angiotensin II and aldesterone and has a dry non-productive cough as a side effect
    ACE inhibitor
  6. The drug that slows the heart allowing more time for the heart to fill

    • propranolol
    • acebutolol
    • atenolol
    • metoprolol
  7. The drug that decreases both preload and afterload by vasodialtion
    Nitroprusside (Nipride)
  8. The vessels known as the capitance vessels and regulate preload
  9. An endogenous substance and is a potent vasocontrictor
    Angiotensin II
  10. The preferred treatment for hypertension
    Life style change
  11. The blood pressure =
    CO x TPR

    TPR= Total peripheral resistance across systemic circulation
  12. Na channel blocker
    Prevents depolarization and ↓ excitability and contraction outside the SA node
  13. Describe Beta-blocker
    • Class II drug
    • ↓  HR, Conduction, BP and O2 consumption of the heart
    • ↑ filling time better contractility & force output
  14. Describe Amiodarone drug
    Prolongs re-polarization but has serious side effects of pulmonary fibrosis
  15. Supraventricular
    Arrhythmia that originates above the ventricles and include afib & aflutter
  16. What is the normal electrical pathway of the heart?
    SA node → AV node → Bundle of HIS →  Bundle branches → perkinjie fibers
  17. Aspirin used for
    A cardiac drug for its anti-platelet aggregation properties
  18. Heparin is used for
    Anti-coagulant that can only be given via injection
  19. Warfarin is used for
    Anti-coagulant that inhibits vitamin K and is given orally
  20. Streptokinase or Urokinase is?
    Thrombolytic is injected directly into the coronary arteries to dissolve a clot and managment of AMI
  21. Epinephrine drug
    • 1. Drug used to make the heart more susceptible to shocks.  
    • 2. Improves the likelihood of converting ventricular fibrillation and tachycardia to rhythms with spontaneous circulation.
    • 3. Improves cerebral blood flow.
    • 4. Increase rate and force.
  22. Atropine drug
    • Keeps the heart rate stable
    • Does not increase the HR and prevents it from decreasing
  23. Sodium bicarb given when?
    Only given in a code when the patient has metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia or DO
  24. Blood flow through the heart:
    Rt Atrium → Rt Ventricle →Pulm artery→Pulm Vein→Lft Atrium→Lft Ventricle
  25. Depolarization
    • -The process of potassium moving out of the cell and sodium moving in → causes contraction. 
    • -Resting: Potassium moves back in sodium moves out. 
    • -Calcium needed for muscle contaction
  26. Optimal peep
    Decreasing peep at 2cm intervals until there is a decline in O2 delivery.
  27. Positive pressure ventilation =
    • ↓ CO because of alveolar pressures ↑ intrathoracic pressure ↓ venous return.  ↑ Alveolar pressure stretches and narrows the capillaries that surround the alveoli = 
    • ↑ PVR →overdistention of the rt ventricle (backs up) cor pulmonade ↓ Lft ventricle output
  28. Trachea stenosis
    Narrowing of the lumen of the trachea
  29. Tracheomalacia
    Softening of the tracheal rings that collapse upon inspiration.
  30. Humidification temperature should be
    32-35 degrees Celsius
  31. Anion Gap
    9-14 mEq/L normal value

    +14 fixed acid problem
  32. Pulmonary Capillary O2 content equation
    CcO2=(Hgx1.34) + (PAO2x0.003)
  33. Carrying of blood to the tissues in the pulmonary arteries equation
    • (Hgx1.34xSaO2) + (PaO2x0.003) = CaO2
    •         Hg          +       Plasma

    Normal value  16-20ml/dl
  34. Intrapulmonary shunting
    Cause of ventilatory  failure

    • Perfusion in excess of ventilation, wasted perfusion, atelectasis
    • Causes refractory hypoxemia:  Healthy  <5%
    • Non critical <10% Critical >30%
    • 10-20% Mild, 20-30% sig. shunt
  35. Diffusion A-a gradient
    PAO2=(760-47)FiO2-PaCO2/1.25 (.8)

    Normal 5-10
  36. RAW normal airway resistance
    0.6-2.4cmH2O/L/Sec @ a flow rate of 30L/min

    In mechanical ventilation RAW is primarily affected by the length, size and patency of the airway, endotracheal tube, and ventilator circuit
  37. Hypoxemia values
    • 80-100 mmHg  Normal
    • 60-79 mmHg Mild
    • 40-59 mmHg Moderate
    • less than 40 mmHg Severe
  38. Hypoventilation
    • Cause of ventilatory failure
    • Reduction of alveolar ventilation ↑ PaCO2

    • PaCO2 >45mmHg
    •           >50mmHg COPD pt.
  39. Venous Blood Gases
    • 7.30-7.40 pH
    • 42-48 PaCO2
    • 24-30 HCO3
    • 35-40 VO2
  40. CHF
    • Loss of contractility or pump efficiency ma the blood volume increase within the heart.
    • ↓ Efficiency ↑ Afterload pumps against resistance can't empty
    • ↑ Volume hypertrophy CO↓ blood flow to kidneys ↓ dehydrated, hypovolemic kidneys retain fluid - backs up t/o body
Card Set:
RT Study
2014-04-18 17:31:40

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