Pharmacology: Nucleic Acids

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kyleannkelsey
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271052
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Pharmacology: Nucleic Acids
Updated:
2014-04-18 22:31:17
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Pharmacology Nucleic Acids
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Pharmacology: Nucleic Acids
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Pharmacology: Nucleic Acids
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  1. What is a nucleoside?
    Base + sugar
  2. What drugs are nucleosides?
    • antiviral drugs: acyclovir, ganciclovir:
    • antineoplastic drugs: cytarabine
  3. What is a nucleotide?
    Phosphates + Base + sugar
  4. Ribonucleoside endings=
    • U/C: -dine
    • A/G: -sine
  5. Deoxyribonucleoside endings=
    • U/C: -dine
    • A/G: -sine
  6. Ribonucleotide endings=
    • U/C: -dylate
    • A/G: -nylate
  7. Deoxyribonucleotide endings=
    • U/C: -dylate
    • A/G: -nylate
  8. What is Inosine?
    Hypoxanthine base + ribose
  9. What is Hypoxanthine?
    • Purine
    • A/G precursor
  10. Elongation happen sat what end of the DNA chain?
    3’ (bottom)
  11. How many bonds are there between A and T?
    2
  12. How many bonds are there between C and G?
    3
  13. What is the action of dealkylating agents?
    Cause mispairing
  14. What is the action of reverse transcriptase?
    Converts RNA to DNA
  15. What activates acyclovir?
    Thymidine kinase
  16. How does Thymidine kinase activate acyclovir?
    Adds a phosphate group
  17. What is the MOA of Hydroxyurea?
    Inhibits ribonucleotide reductase
  18. What is the action of ribonucleotide reductase?
    Converts RNA to DNA by removing the 2’ OH
  19. What is the MOA of 5-flourouracil?
    Inhibits thymidylate Synthase
  20. What is the action of Thymidilate synthase?
    Methylates Uracil to form Thymine
  21. What is the MOA of Methotrexate?
    Inhibits Dihydrofolate reductase
  22. What activates 6-mercaptopurine?
    HGPRT (Hypoxanthine-Guanine phosphoribosyl transferase)
  23. Hypoxanthine and guanine are recycled y what enzyme?
    HGPRT (Hypoxanthine-Guanine phosphoribosyl transferase)
  24. A deficiency in HGPRT (Hypoxanthine-Guanine phosphoribosyl transferase), leads to what?
    • Lesch-Nyham syndrome:
    • Buildup of uric acid, hypoxanthine and guanine
  25. What is the action of HGPRT (Hypoxanthine-Guanine phosphoribosyl transferase)?
    Adds a ribose phosphate to a base
  26. What is Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate?
    • Ribose with a phosphate at 5’ and 2 phosphates at 1’
    • Precursor for adenine and guanine synthesis
  27. What activates Cytarbine?
    Deoxycytidine kinase
  28. How does the active form of cytarbine, cytosine arabinoside 5-triphosphate, inhibit nucleic acid synthesis?
    Arabinose sugar has 2’ OH above the plane which is not useful in nucleic acid synthesis
  29. What effect does the 3’ azide group on zidovudine have?
    Inhibits DNA synthesis because there is no 3’ OH group for elongation
  30. How does Zalcitabine inhibit reverse transcriptase synthesis of DNA?
    • Only has a Hydrogen at 3’
    • Cannot elongate DNA chain because there is no free 3’ OH
  31. What are the nucleotide antagonists?
    • Zalcitabine
    • Zidovudine
    • Cytarbine
    • Didanosine
    • 6 mercaptopurine
    • Hydroxyurea
    • 5-flourouracil
  32. How does Didanosine inhibit DNA synthesis?
    • Only has a Hydrogen at 3’
    • Cannot elongate DNA chain because there is no free 3’ OH
  33. How does 6 mercaptopurine inhibit DNA synthesis?
    Adednine w/ a sulfahydryl group instead of an NH2
  34. What is the MOA of 5-flourouracil?
    Inhibits Thymidylate synthase
  35. What is methotrexate’s structure similar to?
    Purines/Folic acid
  36. What is the MOA of Methotrexate?

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