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The scientific study about how we think, influence, and relate to one another.
- The theory that we explain someone's behavior by internal dispositions (personality traits) or external situation.
- ex: road rage = jerk
Foot in the door phenomenon
- The tendency for people who have first agrees to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
- ex: sample foods
Fundamental Attribution Error
- When analyzing other people behavior we tend to UNDERESTIMATE the power of the situation and overestimate the roles of personality.
- ex: Hobos = lazy.
Zimbardo's prison study
- Most guards developed disparaging attitudes, and some devised cruel and degrading routines.
- Role Playing affects attitudes
A set expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
Cognitive dissonance theory
- The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort(dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts(cognition) are inconsistent.
- ex: we often bring out attitudes more in line with our actions
- ex: prisoners justify to feel comfortable
Adjusting one's behavior to match the groups standard.
Solomon Ash's study
The Solomon Ash study was an experiment done to see how long it took for people to conform. It consisted of a six actors and one subject. The subject had no idea it was a conformity test because they were told it was a visual perception test. The test consisted of a standard line and 3 comparison lines. The group was asked to match the standard line with the comparison line that had the same length. The five actors purposefully matched the wrong lines together to see if the subject would conform and how long would it take till they did conform.
Most subjects conformed because they felt discomfort, awkward, and they weren't playing the game right.
Milgrams obedience study
- Compliance of behavior in response to direct
- the experimenter ordered "teachers" to deliver shocks to a learner for wrong answer
- test was to see how long the teachers would obey order to continue shocking
- Improved performance of tasks in the presence of other
- on well-learned tasks only
- ex: athletes
- People in a group exert less effort
- presence of other diminishes feelings of responsibility
- ex: group projects 911
- Loss of self-awareness and restraint in group situation that promote arousal and anonymity.
- ex: food fight, riot
Mere exposure effect
- Repeated exposure to novel "new" stimuli increases liking of them.
- ex: students. radio songs on repeat
Attractive people are perceived to be happier, more successful and healthier
Friends share common attitudes, beliefs, intrests
Unselfish regard for the wealth of other.
- Tendency for a bystander to an emergency to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
- Social loafing
- it's not their job