APUSH Time Line

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APUSH Time Line
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APUSH Time line
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  1. 33,000-8000BCE
    First humans cross into Americas from Asia
  2. 5000 BCE
    Corn is developed as a staple crop in the Middle East
  3. 1200 BCE
    Corn planting reaches present-day American Southwest
  4. 1000 CE
    • Norse voyagers discover and briefly settle in NE N America
    • Corn cultivation reaches MidW and SE Atlantic seaboard.
  5. 1100 CE
    Height of Mississippian settlement at Cahokia
  6. 1100-1300CE
    Christian crusades arouse European interest in the E
  7. 1295
    Marco Polo returns to Europe
  8. Late 1400s
    Spain becomes united
  9. 1488
    Dias rounds S tip of Africa
  10. 1492
    Columbus lands in the Bahamas
  11. 1494
    Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal
  12. 1498
    • Da Gama reaches India
    • Cabot explores NE coast of N America for England.
  13. 1513
    Balboa claims all lands touched by the Pacific Ocean for Spain
  14. 1517
    Martin Luther begins Protestant Reformation
  15. 1513, 1521
    Ponce de Leòn explores Florida
  16. 1519-1521
    Cortes conquers Mexico for Spain
  17. 1522
    Magellan's vessel completes circumnavigation of the world
  18. 1524
    Verrazano explores E seaboard of N America for France
  19. 1532
    Pizarro crushes Incas
  20. 1534
    Cartier Journeys up the St. Lawerence River
  21. 1536
    John Calvin of Geneva publishes Institutions of Christian Religion
  22. 1539-1542
    De Soto explores the SE and discovers Mississippi River
  23. 1540-1542
    Coronado explores present-day SW
  24. 1542
    Cabrillo explores California for Spain
  25. 1558
    Elizabeth I becomes queen of England
  26. 1565
    Spanish build fortress at St. Augustine
  27. 1577
    Drake circumnavigates the globe
  28. 1585
    Raleigh founds "lost colony" at Roanoke Island
  29. 1588
    England defeats Spanish Armada
  30. 1565-1590
    English crush Irish uprising
  31. Late 1500s
    Iroquois Confederacy founded, according to Iroquois legend
  32. 1598
    Edict of Nantes (Repealed in 1685)
  33. 1598-1609
    Spanish under Onate conquer Pueblo peoples of Rio Grande valley
  34. 1603
    James I becomes king of England
  35. 1604
    Spain and England sign peace treaty
  36. 1607
    Virginia colony founded at Jamestown
  37. 1608
    Champlain colonizes Quebec for France
  38. 1609
    Spanish found New Mexico
  39. 1612
    Rolfe perfects tobacco culture in Virginia
  40. 1614
    First Anglo-Powhatan war ends
  41. 1619
    • First Africans arrive in Jamestown
    • Virginia House of burgesses est.
  42. 1620
    Pilgrims sail on the Mayflower to Plymouth Bay
  43. 1624
    • Virginia becomes royal colony
    • Dutch found New Netherland
  44. 1625
    Population of English colonies in America about 2000
  45. 1629
    Charles I dismisses Parliament and persecutes Puritans
  46. 1630
    Puritans found Massachusetts Bay Colony
  47. 1634
    Maryland colony founded
  48. 1635-1636
    Roger Williams convicted of heresy and founds Rhode Island colony
  49. 1636
    Harvard College founded
  50. 1635-1638
    Connecticut and New Haven colonies founded
  51. 1637
    Pequot War
  52. 1638
    Anne Hutchinson banished from Massachusetts colony
  53. 1639
    Connecticut's Fundamental Orders drafted
  54. 1640s
    Large-scale slave-labor system est. in English West Indies
  55. 1642-1648
    English Civil War
  56. 1643
    • New England Confederation formed
    • Louis XIV becomes king of France
  57. 1644
    Second Anglo-Powhatan War
  58. 1649
    • Act of Toleration in Maryland
    • Charles I beheaded; Cromwell rules England
  59. 1650
    William Bradford completes Of Plymouth Plantation

    1st Navigation Laws to control colonial commerce
  60. 1655
    New Netherland conquers New Sweden
  61. 1660
    Charles II restored to English throne
  62. 1661
    Barbados slave code adopted
  63. 1662
    Half-Way Covenant for Congregational Church membership est.
  64. 1664
    • England seizes New Netherland from Dutch
    • E and W Jersey colonies founded
  65. 1670
    • Carolina colony created
    • Virginia assembly disfranchises landless freemen
  66. 1675-1676
    King Philip's War
  67. 1676
    Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia
  68. 1680
    Popé's Rebellion in New Mexico
  69. 1681
    William Penn founds Pennsylvania colony
  70. 1682
    La Salle explores Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico
  71. 1680s
    • French expedition down Mississippi River under La Salle
    • Mass expansion of slavery in colonies
  72. 1686
    Royal authority creates Dominion of New England
  73. 1688-1689
    Glorious Revolution overthrows Stuarts and Dominion of New England
  74. 1689-1697
    King William's War (War of the League of Augsburg)
  75. 1689-1691
    Leisler's Rebellion in NY
  76. 1692
    Salem witch trials in Massachusetts
  77. 1693
    College of William and Mary founded
  78. 1696
    Board of Trade assumes governance of colonies
  79. 1698
    Royal African Company slave trade monopoly ended
  80. 1700-1800
    New Indian peoples move onto Great Plain
  81. 1700
    Pop. of English colonies in America about 250,000
  82. 1701
    Yale College founded
  83. 1702-1713
    Queen Anne's War (War of Spanish Succession)
  84. 1711-1713
    Tuscarora War in N Carolina
  85. 1712
    • North Carolina formally separate from South Carolina
    • NYC Slave revolt
  86. 1715-1716
    Yamasee War in S Carolina
  87. 1718
    French found New Orleans
  88. 1721
    Smallpox inoculation introduced
  89. 1732
    1st edition of Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanack
  90. 1733
    Georgia colony founded
  91. 1734
    Jonathan Edwards begins Great Awakening
  92. 1734-1735
    Zenger free-press trial in NY
  93. 1738
    George Whitefield spreads Great Awakening
  94. 1739
    • S Carolina slave revolt
    • War of Jenkin's Ear
  95. 1744-1748
    King George's War (War of Austrian Succession)
  96. 1746
    Princeton College founded
  97. 1747
    Shaker movement founded in Manchester, England
  98. 1750
    Industrial Revolution begins in Britain
  99. 1754
    Washington Battles French on frontier Albany Congress
  100. 1755
    Braddock's defeat
  101. 1757
    Pitt emerges as leader of British government
  102. 1756-1763
    Seven Year's war (French and Indian War)
  103. 1759
    Battle of Quebec
  104. 1760
    Britain vetoes S Carolina anti-slave trade measures
  105. 1763
    • Peace of Paris
    • Pontiac's uprising
    • Proclamation of 1763
    • Seven Years War ends
  106. 1764
    • Paxton Boys march on Philadelphia
    • Brown College founded
    • Sugar Act
  107. 1766
    • Rutgers College founded
    • Declaratory Act
  108. 1767
    • Townshend Act
    • NY Legislature suspended by Parliament
  109. 1768-1771
    Regulator protests
  110. 1768
    British troops occupy Boston
  111. 1769
    • Serra founds first California Mission at San Diego
    • Dartmouth College founded
  112. 1770s
    1st Shaker communities est. in NY
  113. 1770
    • Boston Massacre
    • All Townshend Acts except tea tax repealed
  114. 1772
    Committees of correspondence formed
  115. 1773
    • British E India Company granted tea monopoly
    • Governor Hutchinson's action provoke Boston Tea Party
  116. 1774
    • "Intolerable Acts"
    • Quebec Act
    • 1st Continental Congress; calls for abolition of slavery.
    • The Association boycotts British goods
  117. 1775
    • Battles of Lexington and Concord
    • 2nd Continental congress
    • Americans capture British garrison at Ticonderoga and Crown Point
    • Battle of Bunker Hill
    • King George III formally proclaims colonies in rebellion
    • Failed invasions of Canada
    • Philadelphia Quakers found world's 1st anti-slavery society.
  118. 1776
    • Paine's Common Sense
    • Declaration of Independence
    • Battle of Trenton
    • New Jersey temporarily gives women right to vote
  119. 1777
    • Battle of Brandywine
    • Battle of Germantown
    • Battle of Saratoga
    • Articles of Confederation adopted by 2nd Continental Congress
  120. 1778
    • Formation of French-American Alliance
    • Battle of Monmouth
  121. 1778-1779
    Clark's victories in the West
  122. 1780
    Massachusetts adopts 1st constitution drafted in convention and ratified by popular vote
  123. 1781
    • Battle of Kind's Mountain
    • Battle of Cowpens
    • Greene leads Carolina campaign
    • French and Americans force Cornwallis to surrender at Yorktown
    • Articles of Confederation put into effect
  124. 1782
    North's ministry collapses in Britain
  125. 1783
    • Treaty of Paris
    • Military officers form Society of the Cincinnati
  126. 1784
    Treaty of Fort Stanwix
  127. 1785
    Land Ordinance of 1785
  128. 1786
    • Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
    • Shay's Rebellion
    • Meeting of five states to discuss revision of the Articles of Confederation
  129. 1787
    • Northwest Ordinance
    • Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia
  130. 1788
    Ratification by nine states guarantees a new government under the Constitution
  131. 1789
    • Constitution formally put into effect
    • Judiciary Act of 1789
    • Washington elected president
    • French Revolution begins
    • Declaration of the Rights of Man (France)
  132. 1790
    1st Official census
  133. 1791
    • Bill of Rights adopted
    • Vermont becomes 14th state
    • Bank of the U.S. created
    • Exercise tax passed
    • Toussaint L-Ouverture launches Haitian Revolution
    • Samuel Slater builds first U.S. textile factory
  134. 1792
    Washington reelected president
  135. 1792-1793
    Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties formed
  136. 1793
    • Louis XVI beheaded; radical phase of French Revolution
    • France declares war on Britain and Spain
    • Washington's Neutrality Proclamation
    • Citizen Genet affair
    • Eli Whitney invents cotton gin
  137. 1794
    • Whiskey rebellion
    • Battle of Fallen Timbers
    • Jay's Treaty with Britain
    • Thomas Paine's The Age of Reason
  138. 1795
    • Treaty of Greenville :Indians cede Ohio
    • Pinckney's Treaty with Spain
    • University of N Carolina founded
  139. 1796
    Washington's Farewell address
  140. 1797
    • Adams becomes president
    • XYZ affair
  141. 1798
    • Alien and Sedition Acts
    • Eli Whitney develops interchangeable parts for muskets
  142. 1798-1799
    Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
  143. 1798-1800
    Undeclared war with France
  144. 1800
    • Convention of 1800 :peace with France
    • Jefferson defeats Adams for presidency
    • 2nd Great Awakening begins
    • Gabriel slave rebellion in Virginia
  145. 1801
    Judiciary Act of 1801
  146. 1801-1805
    Naval war with Tripoli
  147. 1802
    • Revised naturalization law
    • Judiciary Act of 1801 repealed
  148. 1803
    • Marbury v. Madison
    • Louisiana Purchase
  149. 1804
    • Haiti emerges as first independent black republic
    • Jefferson reelected president
    • Impeachment of Justice Chase
  150. 1804-1806
    Lewis and Clark expedition
  151. 1805
    • Peace treaty with Tripoli
    • Battle of Trafalgar
    • Battle of Austerlitz
  152. 1805-1807
    Pike's explorations
  153. 1806
    Burr treason trial
  154. 1807
    • Chesapeake affair
    • Embargo Act; spurs American manufacturing
    • Robert Fulton's first steamboat
    • Britain abolishes slave trade
  155. 1808
    • Madison elected president
    • Congress outlaws slave trade
    • Royal Navy forms W Africa Squadron
  156. 1809
    Non-Intercourse Act replaces Embargo Act
  157. 1810
    • Macon's Bill No. 2
    • Napoleon announces (falsely) repeal of blockade decrees
    • Madison reestablishes nonimportation against Britain
    • Fletcher v. Peck ruling asserts right of Supreme court to invalidate state laws deemed unconstitutional
  158. 1811
    • Battle of Tippecanoe
    • Venezuela declares independence from Spain
    • Cumberland Road construction begins
  159. 1812
    • U.S. declares war on Britain
    • Madison Reelected
  160. 1812-1813
    American invasions of Canada fail
  161. 1813
    • Battle of Thames
    • Battle of Lake Erie
  162. 1814
    • Battle of Horseshoe Bend
    • Napoleon exiled to Elba
    • British burn Washington DC
    • Battle of Plattsburgh
    • Treaty of Ghent signed ending war of 1812
  163. 1814-1815
    • Hartford convention
    • Congress of vienna
  164. 1815
    • Battle of New Orleans
    • Napoleon's army defeated at Waterloo
  165. 1816
    • 2nd bank of the US founded
    • Protectionist tariff of 1816
    • Argentina declares independence from Spain
    • Monroe elected president
  166. 1817
    • Madison vetoes Calhoun's bonus bill
    • Rush-Bagot agreement limits naval armament on Great Lakes
    • Erie Canal construction begins
    • American Colonization Society formed
  167. 1818
    • Jackson invades Florida
    • Chile in rebellion since 1810 declares independence from Spain
    • Anglo-American Convention
  168. 1819
    • Panic of 1819
    • Spain cedes Florida to US in Adams Onis Treaty
    • McCulloch v. Maryland
    • Dartmouth college v. Woodward
    • Jefferson founds University of Virginia
  169. 1820
    • Missouri compromise
    • Missouri and Maine admitted to Union
    • Land act of 1820
    • Monroe reelected
    • New England missionaries arrive in Hawaii
  170. 1821
    • Cohens v. Virginia
    • Austria intervenes to crush popular uprising in Italy
    • Cooper publishes The Spy his 1st successful novel
    • Emma Willard est. Troy (NY) Female Seminary
  171. 1822
    • Vesey slave conspiracy in Charleston S. Carolina
    • Republic of Liberia est. in Africa
  172. 1823
    • France intervenes to suppresses liberal government in Spain
    • Secreatary Adams Proposes Monroe Doctrine
    • Mexico opens Texas to US Settlers
  173. 1824
    • Russo-American Treaty
    • Gibbons v. Ogden
    • Lack of electoral majority for presidency throws election into House of Representatives
  174. 1825
    • Erie Canal completed
    • House elects John Quincy Adams president
    • New Harmony commune est.
  175. 1826
    American Temperance Society founded
  176. 1828
    • Tariff of 1828 (Tariff of Abomination)
    • Jackson elected president
    • The South Carolina Exposition published
    • 1st railroad in the US
    • Noah Webster publishes dictionary
    • American Peace Society Founded
  177. 1829
    Walker publishes Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World
  178. 1830s
    Cyrus McCormick incents mechanical mower-reaper
  179. 1830
    • Indian Removal Act
    • July Revolution in France
    • Joseph Smith founded Mormon Church
    • Godey's Lady's Book first published
  180. 1830-1831
    Finney conducts revivals in eastern cities
  181. 1831-1832
    • Alexis de Tocqueville tours US
    • Virginia legislature debates slavery and emancipation
  182. 1831
    • Nat Turner slave rebellion in Virginia
    • Garrison begins publishing The Liberator
  183. 1832
    • "Bank War" Jackson vetoes bill to recharter Bank of US
    • Reform Bill in Britain expands electorate
    • Tariff of 1832
    • Jackson defeats clay for presidency
  184. 1832-1833
    S Carolina nullification crisis
  185. 1833
    • Compromise Tariff of 1833
    • Jackson removes federal deposits from Bank of US
    • British abolish slavery in W Indies
    • American Anti-Slavery Society formed
  186. 1834
    • Anti-Catholic riot in Boston
    • Abolitionist students expelled from Lane Theological Seminary
  187. 1835
    • Lyceum movement flourishes
    • US Post office orders destruction of abolitionist mail
    • "Broadcloth Mob" attacks Garrison
  188. 1836
    • Bank of US expires
    • Specie Circular issued
    • Bureau of Indian Affairs est.
    • Battle of the Alamo
    • Battle of San Jacinto
    • Texas wins independence from Mexico
    • Van Buren elected president
    • House of Representatives passes Gag Resolution
  189. 1837
    • Seminole Indians defeated and eventually removed from Florida
    • US recognizes Texas republic but refuses annexation
    • Panic of 1837
    • John Deere develops steel plow
    • Oberlin College admits female students
    • Mary Lyon est. Mount Holyoke Seminary
    • Emerson delivers "The American Scholar" address
    • Mob kills abolitionist Lovejoy in Alton, Illinois
    • Canadian rebellion and Caroline incident
  190. 1838-1839
    Cherokee Indians removed on Trail of Tears
  191. 1839
    • Weld publishes American Slavery as It Is
    • Slave revolt on Amistad
    • Aroostook War breaks out over Maine boundary
  192. 1840
    • Independent treasury est.
    • Harrison defeats Van Buren for presidency.
    • President Van Buren est. 10-hour day for federal employees
    • London anti-slavery convention refuses to recognize female delegates
    • Antislavery Liberty party organized
  193. 1841
    • Brook Farm commune est.
    • Harrison dies after four weeks in office
    • Tyler assumes presidency
  194. 1842
    • Massachusetts declares labor unions legal in Commonwealth v. Hunt
    • Webster-Ashburton treaty
  195. 1843
    Dorothea Dix petitions Massachusetts legislature on behalf of the insane
  196. 1843-1868
    Era of Clipper ships
  197. 1844
    • Samuel Morse invents telegraph
    • Anti-Catholic riot in Philadelphia
    • Polk defeats Clay in "Manifest Destiny" election
    • Caleb Cushing signs Treat of Wanghia with China
  198. 1845
    • Douglass publishes Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
    • US annexes Texas
  199. 1845-1849
    Potato famine in Ireland
  200. 1846
    • Elias Howe invents sewing machine
    • Walker Tariff
    • Independent treasury restored
    • US Settles Oregon dispute with Britain
    • US and Mexico clash over TX boundary
    • Kearny Takes Santa Fe
    • Fremont conquers California
    • Wilmot Provios passes House of Representatives
  201. 1846-1847
    Mormon migration to Utah
  202. 1846-1848
    Mexican War
  203. 1847
    • Battle of Buena Vista
    • Scott takes Mexico City
  204. 1848
    • 1st general incorporation laws in NY
    • Democratic revolutions collapse in Germany
    • Seneca Falls Woman's Rights Convention held
    • Oneida Community est.
    • Free Soil party organized
    • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    • British seize port of San Juan del Norte in Nicaragua
    • Taylor defeats Cass and Van Buren of pres.
  205. 1849
    • American or Know-Nothing party formed
    • California gold rush
  206. 1850
    • Hawthrone publishes The Scarlet Letter
    • Fillmore assumes presidency after Taylor's death
    • Compromise of 185o, including Fugitive Slave law
    • Clayton-Bulwer Treaty with Britain
  207. 1851
    • London World's Fair
    • Melville publishes Moby Dick
    • Maine passes 1st law prohibiting liquor
    • Australia gold rush
  208. 1852
    • Cumberland Road completed
    • Pierce defeats Scott for pres.
    • Harrriet Beecher Stowe publishes Uncle Tom's Cabin
  209. 1853-1856
    Crimean War in Russia
  210. 1853
    Gadsden Purchase from Mexico
  211. 1854
    • Commodore Perry opens Japan
    • Ostend Manifesto proposes seizure of Cuba
    • Kansas-Nebraska Act repeals Missouri Compromise of 1820
    • Republican party organized
  212. 1855
    Whitman publishes Leaves of Grass
  213. 1856
    • William Walker becomes president of Nicaragua and legalizes slavery
    • Buchanan defeats Fremont and Fillmore for pres.
    • Sumner beaten by Brook in Senate chamber
    • Brown's Pottawatomie Massacre
  214. 1856-1861
    Civil war in "Bleeding Kansas"
  215. 1857
    • Dred Scott decision
    • Lecompton Constitution rejected
    • Panic of 1857
    • Tariff of 1857
    • Hinton R. Helper publishes The Impending Crisis of the South
  216. 1858
    • Cyrus Field lays first transatlantic cable
    • Lincoln-Douglas debates
    • Pike Peak gold rush
  217. 1859
    • Brown raids Harpers Ferry
    • Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species
    • Nevada Comstock Lode discovered
  218. 1860
    • Pony Express est.
    • Lincoln wins four-way race for presidency
    • S Carolina secedes from Union
    • Crittenden Compromise fails
  219. 1861
    • 1st transcontinental telegraph
    • 7 seceding states form Confederate states of America
    • Lincoln takes office
    • Fort Sumter fired on (April 12)
    • Four upper South states secede (April-June)
    • Morrill Tariff Act Passed
    • Trent affair
    • Lincoln suspends writ of habeas corpus
    • 1st battle of Bull Run
  220. 1862
    • Confederacy enacts conscription
    • Homestead Act
    • Grant takes Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
    • Battle of Shiloh
    • McClellan's Peninsula Campaign
    • Seven Days' Battles
    • Second Battle of Bull Run
    • Naval battle of Merrimack (Virginia) and Monitor
    • Battle of Antietam
    • Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation
    • Battle of Fredericksburg
    • Northern army seizes New Orleans
    • Congress authorizes transcontinental railroad
    • Morrill Act provides public land for higher education
  221. 1862-1864
    Alabama raids Northern shipping
  222. 1863
    • Union enacts conscription
    • NYC Draft riots
    • National Banking System est.
    • Final Emancipation Proclamation
    • Battle of Chancellorsville
    • Battle of Gettysburg
    • Fall of Vicksburg
    • Fall of Port Hudson
    • Lincoln announces "10 percent" Reconstruction plan
    • World's first subway system opens in London
  223. 1863-1864
    Napoleon III installs Archduke Maximillian as emperor of Mexico
  224. 1864
    • Alabama sunk by Union warship
    • Sherman's march through Georgia
    • Grant's Wilderness Campaign
    • Battle of Cold Harbor
    • Lincoln defeats McClellan for presidency
    • Lincoln vetoes Wade-Davis Bill
    • Sand Creek Massacre
    • Nevada added to Union
  225. 1865
    • Hampton Roads Conference
    • Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox
    • Lincoln assassinated
    • 13th amendment ratified
    • Johnson issues Reconstruction  proclamation
    • Congress refuses to seat Southern congressmen
    • Freedman's Bureau est.
    • Southern states pass Black Codes
  226. 1866
    • Congress passes Civil Rights Bill over Johnson's veto
    • Congress passes 14 amendment
    • Johnson backed candidates lose congressional election
    • Ex parte milligan case
    • KKK Founded
    • National Labor Union organized
    • First working transatlantic telegraph cable
    • American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) created
  227. 1867
    • Reform Bill expands British electorate
    • Reconstruction Act
    • Tenure of Office Act
    • US buys Alaska from Russia
    • National Grange organized
  228. 1868
    • Meiji Restoration in Japan
    • Johnson impeached and acquitted
    • Johnson pardons Confederate leaders
    • Grant defeats Seymour for presidency
  229. 1869
    • Fisk and Gould corner gold market
    • Transcontinental railroad joined near Ogden Utah
    • Knights of Labor organized
    • Suez Canal completed
    • Wyoming Territory grants women right to vote
  230. 1870
    • 15 amendment ratified
    • Standard Oil Company organized
  231. 1870-1871
    Force Acts
  232. 1871
    • Tweed scandal in NY
    • Woodhill and Clafin's Weekly published
  233. 1872
    • Freedman's Bureau ended
    • Credit Mobilier scandal exposed
    • Liberal Republicans break with Grant
    • Grant defeats Greeley for presidency
    • Metaphysical Club meets in Cambridge, Massachusetts
  234. 1873
    • Panic of 1873
    • Comstock Law
  235. 1874
    • Woman's Christian Temperance Union organized
    • Chautauqua education movement launched
    • Impressionist artists debut in Paris
  236. 1875
    • Whiskey Ring Scandal
    • Civil Rights Act of 1875
    • Resumption Act
  237. 1876
    • Hayes-Tilden election standoff and crisis
    • Alexander Graham Bell invents telephone
    • John Hopkins University graduate school est.
    • Battle of Little Bighorn
    • Colorado admitted to Union
  238. 1877
    • Reconstruction ends
    • Compromise of 1877
    • Railroad strikes paralyze nation
    • Nez Perce war
  239. 1879
    • Edison invents electric light
    • Henry George published Progress and Poverty
    • Dumbbell tenement introduced
    • Mary Baker Eddy est. Christian Science
    • Salvation Army begins work in America
  240. 1880
    Garfield feats Hancock for presidency
  241. 1881
    • Garfield assassinated; Arthur assumes presidency
    • Booker T. Washington becomes head of Tuskegee Institution
    • American Red Cross founded
    • Barnum and Bailey first join to stage "Greatest Show on Earth"
    • Helen Hunt Jackson publishes A Century of Dishonor
  242. 1882
    • Chinese Exclusion Act
    • First immigration-restriction laws passed
  243. 1883
    • Civil Rights Cases
    • Pendleton Act sets up Civil Service Commission
    • Brooklyn Bridge completed
    • Metropolitan Opera House built in NY
  244. 1884
    • Cleveland defeats Blaine for presidency
    • Mark Twain publishes The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
    • Federal government outlaws Indian Sun Dance
  245. 1885
    • Louis Sullivan builds first skyscraper in Chicago
    • Linotype invented
    • Canadian Pacific Railway, 1st transcontinental rail line, completed across Canada
  246. 1885-1890
    Local chapters of Farmers' Alliance formed
  247. 1886
    • Haymarket Square bombing Wabash case
    • American Federation of Labor formed
    • Statue of Liberty erected in NY harbor
  248. 1887
    • Interstate Commerce Act
    • American Protective Association (APA) formed
    • Hatch Act supplements Morrill Act
    • Dawes Severalty Act
  249. 1888
    • Harrison defeats Cleveland for presidency
    • Edward Bellamy publishes Looking Backward
    • American all-star baseball team tours world
  250. 1889
    • Jane Addams founds Hull House in Chicago
    • Oklahoma opened to US citizen settlement
    • Samoa crisis with Germany
    • Pan-American Conference
  251. 1889-1890
    N Dakota, S Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho and Wyoming admitted to Union
  252. 1890
    • Homestead steel strike
    • Coeur d'Alene (Idaho) silver miner's strike
    • People's party candidate James B. Weaver wins 22 electoral votes
    • Cleveland defeats Harrison and Weaver to regain presidency
    • Sherman anti-trust act
    • National American Women Suffrage Association formed
    • Census Bureau declares frontier line ended
    • Emergence of People's Party (populists)
    • Mahan publishes The Influence of Sea Power upon History
  253. 1891
    • Basketball invented
    • Battle of Wounded Knee
    • Construction of Trans-Siberian Railroad begins
    • New Orleans Crisis with Italy
  254. 1892
    • Populist party candidate James B. Weaver polls more than 1 million votes in presidential election
    • Valparaiso crisis with Chile
    • Sierra Club founded
  255. 1893
    • Depression of 1893 begins
    • Republicans regain House of Representatives
    • Lillian Wald opens Henry Street Settlement in NY
    • Anti-Saloon League formed
    • World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago
    • New Zealand grants women the right to vote
    • Frederick Jackson Turner publishes The Significance of the Frontier in American History
    • Prifbilof Islands dispute with Canada
    • White planter revolt in Hawaii
    • Cleveland refuses Hawaii annexation
  256. 1894
    • Coxey's Army marches on Washington
    • Pullman strike
  257. 1895
    • Cubans revolt against Spain
    • J.P. Morgan's banking syndicate loans $65 million in old to federal government
  258. 1895-1896
    Venezuelan boundary crisis with Britain
  259. 1896
    • Plessy v Ferguson legitimizes separate but equal doctrine
    • Utah admitted to Union
    • McKinley defeats Bryan for presidency
  260. 1897
    • Library of Congress opens
    • Dingley Tariff
  261. 1898
    • Charlotte Perkins Gilman publishes Women and Economics
    • Maine explosion in Havana harbor
    • Spanish American war
    • Teller Amendment
    • Dewey's victory at Manila Bay
    • Hawaii annexed
  262. 1899
    • Kate Chopin publishes The Awakening
    • Senate ratifies treaty acquiring Philippines
    • Aguinaldo launches rebellion against US in Philippines
    • 1st American Open Door note
    • National Consumers League founded
  263. 1900
    • Theodore Dreiser publishes Sister Carrie
    • Gold Standard Act
    • Hawaii receives full territorial status
    • Foraker Act for Puerto Rico
    • Boxer Rebellion and US Military expedition to China
    • 2nd open door note
    • McKinley defeats Bryan for presidency
  264. 1901
    • US Steel Corporation formed
    • Supreme Court Insular Cases
    • Platt Amendment
    • McKinley assassinated; Roosevelt becomes president
    • Filipino rebellion suppressed
    • Hay Pauncefote Treaty with Britain give US exclusive right to build Panama Canal
    • Commission system est. in Galveston TX
    • Progressive Robert La Follette elected governor of Wisconsin
    • American Socialist Party Founded
  265. 1902
    • US Troops leave Cuba
    • Colombian senate rejects US proposal for canal across Panama
    • Lincoln Steffens and Ida Tarbell publish muckraking exposes
    • Anthracite coal strike
    • Newlands Act
  266. 1903
    • Panamanian revolution against Columbia
    • Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty gives US control of Canal Zone in newly independent Panama
    • Department of Commerce and Labor est.
    • Elkins Act
    • Women's trade union league founded
    • Wright brothers fly 1st airplane
    • 1st Story-sequence motion picture
  267. 1904
    • Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine
    • Northern Securities case
    • Roosevelt defeats Alton B. Parker for presidency
  268. 1904-1914
    Construction of Panama Canal
  269. 1905
    • US takes over Dominican Republic customs service
    • Roosevelt mediates Russo-Japanese peace treaty
    • Lochner v. NY
  270. 1906
    • San Francisco Japanese education crisis
    • Roosevelt arranges Algeciras Conference
    • Hepburn Act
    • Upton Sinclair publishes The Jungle
    • Meat Inspection Act
    • Pure Food and Drug Act
  271. 1906-1909
    US Marines occupy Cuba
  272. 1907
    • Henry Adams privately publishes The Education of Henry Adams
    • Oklahoma admitted to Union
    • Great White Fleet makes world voyage
    • "Roosevelt panic"
  273. 1907-1908
    "Gentleman's Agreement" with Japan
  274. 1908
    • Root-Takahira agreement
    • Muller v. Oregon
    • Taft defeats Bryan for presidency
    • Aldrich-Vreeland Act
    • Henry Ford introduces Model T
  275. 1909
    Payne-Aldrich Tariff
  276. 1910
    • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People founded.
    • Ballinger-Pinchot affair
    • Washington State grants woman suffrage
  277. 1911
    • Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire
    • Standard Oil antitrust case
    • US Steel Corporation antitrust suit
    • California grants woman suffrage
  278. 1912
    • Taft wins Republican nomination over Roosevelt
    • Arizona Kansas and Oregon grant woman suffrage
    • Children's Bureau est. in Department of Labor
    • Wilson defeats Taft and Roosevelt for president
  279. 1913
    • 16th amendment passed (income tax)
    • 17th amendment passed (direct election of US senators)
    • Federal Reserve Act
    • San Francisco decides to build Hetch Hetchy Reservoir
    • Underwood Tariff Act
    • Huerta takes power in Mexico
  280. 1914
    • Clayton Anti-Trust Act
    • Federal Trade Commission est.
    • US seizes port of Veracruz, Mexico
    • WWI begins in Europe
  281. 1915
    • La Follette Seaman's Act
    • Lusitania torpedoed and sunk by German U-boat
    • US marines sent to Haiti
    • Germany declares submarine war area around British isles
    • Council of National Defense est.
  282. 1916
    • Sussex ultimatum and pledge
    • US exports to European belligerents skyrocket
    • Workingmen's Compensation Act
    • Federal Farm Loan Act
    • Warehouse Act
    • Adamson Act
    • Pancho Villa raids New Mexico
    • Brandeis appointed to Supreme Court
    • Jones Act
    • US Marines sent to Dominican Repubic
    • Wilson defeats Hughes for presidency
  283. 1917
    • Puerto Ricans granted US citizenship
    • US Buys Virgin Islands from Denmark
    • Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare
    • Zimmerman note
    • Railroads placed under federal control
    • US enters WWI
    • Espionage Act of 1917
    • Wilson calls for "peace without victory"
    • Bolshevik Revolution
  284. 1918
    • Wilson proposes 14 points
    • Sedition Act of 1918
    • Battle of Chateau-Thierry
    • 2nd Battle of the Marne
    • Meuse-Argonne offensive
  285. 1918-1919
    • Armistice ends WWI
    • Worldwide influenza pandemic
  286. 1919
    • Paris Peace Conference and Treaty of Versailles
    • Wilson's pro-League tour and collapse
    • 18th amendment (prohibition of alcohol)
    • 1st Senate defeat of Versailles Treaty
    • Volstead Act
    • Seattle general strike
    • Anderson publishes Winesburg Ohio
    • American Legion founded
    • Chicago race riot
  287. 1919-1920
    "Red Scare"
  288. 1920
    • Women's Bureau est. in Department of Labor
    • Final Senate defeat of Versailles Treaty after reconsideration
    • 19th amendment (woman suffrage) passed
    • Harding defeats Cox for presidency
    • Radio broadcasting begins
    • Fitzgerald publishes This Side of Paradise
    • Lewis publishes Main Street
    • Esch-Cummins Transportation Act
    • Merchant Marine Act
  289. 1921
    • Sacco-Vanzetti trial
    • Emergency Quota Act
    • Bureau of the Budget created
    • Veterans Bureau created
    • Capper-Volstead Act
  290. 1922
    • Lewis publishes Babbitt
    • Eliot publishes The Waste Land
    • Five-power Naval Treaty signed
    • Four-power and nine-power treaties on the Far East
    • Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law
  291. 1923
    • Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) proposed
    • Adkins v Children's Hospital
    • Teapot Dome Scandal
    • Harding dies; Coolidge assumes presidency
  292. 1924
    • Indians granted US citizenship
    • Immigration Act of 1924
    • Adjusted Compensation Act for veterans
    • Dawes plan for international finance
    • US Troops leave Dominican Republic
    • Coolidge wins three way presidential election
  293. 1925
    • Scopes trial
    • Florida real estate boom
    • Fitzgerald publishes The Great Gatsby
    • Dreiser publishes An American Tragedy
  294. 1926
    • Hughes publishes The Weary Blues
    • Hemingway publishes The Sun Also Rises
    • US Troop occupy Nicaragua
  295. 1927
    • Lindbergh flies solo across Atlantic
    • First talking motion picture, The Jazz Singer
    • Sacco and Vanzetti executed
  296. 1928
    • Kellogg-Briand Pact
    • Hoover defeats Smith for presidency
    • Hoover makes goodwill tour of Latin America
  297. 1929
    • Faulkner publishes The Sound and the Fury
    • Hemingway publishes A Farewell to Arms
    • Agricultural Marketing Act sets up Federal Farm Board
    • Stock-Market crash
  298. 1930
    Hawley-Smoot Tariff
  299. 1931
    Japanese invade Manchuria
  300. 1932
    • Al Capone imprisoned
    • Reconstruction Finance Corporation est.
    • Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act
    • "Bonus Army" dispersed from Washington DC
    • Roosevelt defeats Hoover for presidency
  301. 1933
    • Bank holiday
    • Emergency Banking Relief Act
    • Beer and Wine Revenue At
    • Hundred Days Congress enacts AAA, TVA, HOLC, NRA, and PWA
    • Federal Securities Act
    • CWA est.
    • 20th Amendment (changed calendar of congressional sessions and dates of presidential inaugurations)
    • 21st Amendment (prohibition repealed)
    • Nazis legally come to power in Germany with passage of Enabling Act
    • FDR torpedoes London Economic Conference
    • US recognizes USSR
    • FDR declares Good Neighbor policy toward Latin America
    • Hitler becomes German Chancellor
    • Germany quits league of Nations
  302. 1934
    • Indian Reorganization Act
    • Gold Reserve Act
    • Securities and Exchange Commission authorized
    • FHA est.
    • Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act
    • Tydings-McDuffie Act provides for Philippine independence on July 4, 1946
    • Reciprocal Trade Agreement act
    • US Marines vacate Haiti
    • Mao's Long march into N China begins
  303. 1935
    • WPA est.
    • Wagner act
    • Resettlement Administration
    • Social Security Act
    • Public Utility Holding Company Act
    • Schecter "sick chicken" case
    • CIO Organized
    • Nuremberg Laws implemented against German Jews
    • Mussolini invades Ethiopia
    • US Neutrality Act of 1935
    • Japan quits League of Nations
  304. 1936
    • Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
    • Roosevelt defeats Landon for president
    • US Neutrality Act of 1936
    • Stalin beings Great Purge
    • German troops invade Rhineland
  305. 1936-1939
    Spanish Civil War
  306. 1937
    • USHA est.
    • Roosevelt announces "Court-packaging" plan
    • US Neutrality act of 1937
    • Panay incident
    • Japan invades China
  307. 1938
    • Second AAA
    • Fair Labor Standards act
    • Hitler seizes Austria
    • Munich Conference
    • Kristallnacht in Germany
  308. 1939
    • Reorganization Act
    • Hatch Act
    • Hitler seizes Czechoslovakia
    • Nazi Soviet pact
    • WWII being in Euro with Hitler invading Poland
    • US Neutrality act of 1939
  309. 1940
    • Fall of France
    • Hitler invades Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, and Belgium
    • US invokes 1st peace time draft
    • Havana Conference
    • Battle of Britain
    • Bases for destroyers deal with Britain
    • FDR defeats Willikie for presidency
  310. 1941
    • Lend-Lease act
    • Hitler attacks USSR
    • Atlantic Charter
    • Japan attacks Pearl harbor
    • US declares war on Japan
    • Germany declares war on US
    • Randolph plans black march on Washington
    • Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) est
    • Roosevelt delivers "Four Freedoms" Speech
  311. 1942
    • Japanese Americans sent to internment camps
    • Japan conquers the Philippines
    • Battle of the Coral Sea
    • Battle of Midway
    • US invades N Africa
    • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) founded
  312. 1943
    • Allies hold Casablanca conference
    • Allies invade Italy
    • Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act
    • Zoot-suit riots in LA
    • Race riot in Detroit
    • Japanese driven from Guadalcanal
    • Tehran conference
  313. 1944
    • Korematsu v. US
    • D-Day invasion of France
    • Battle of the Marianas
    • Roosevelt defeats Dewey for president
    • Servicemen's Readjustment Act (GI Bill)Bretton Woods economic conference
  314. 1944-1945
    Battle of the Bulge
  315. 1945
    • Roosevelt dies; Truman assumes presidency
    • Germany Surrenders
    • Battle of Iwo Jima and Okinawa
    • Potsdam conference
    • Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    • Yalta conference
    • Japan surrenders
    • Spock publishes The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care
    • US ends lend-lease to USSR
    • UN est.
  316. 1945-1946
    Nuremberg war crimes trial in Germany
  317. 1946
    • Employment Act creates Council of Economic Advisers
    • Iran crisis
    • Kennan's "Long Telegram" lays out "Containment doctrine"
  318. 1946-1948
    Tokyo war crimes trial
  319. 1947
    • Truman Doctrine
    • Marshall Plan
    • Taft-Hartley
    • National Security Act creates Department of Defense, National Security Council (NSC) and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
  320. 1948
    • Israel founded; US recognizes it
    • "Voice of America" begins radio broadcasting behind iron curtain
    • Alger Hiss case begins
    • Truman defeats Dewey for presidency
  321. 1948-1949
    Berlin blockade
  322. 1949
    • NATO est.
    • Communists defeat Nationalists in China
    • Soviets explode their first atomic bomb
  323. 1950
    • American economy begins post war growth
    • McCarthy red hunt begins
    • McCarran Internal Security Bill passed by Congress over Truman's veto
  324. 1950-1953
    Korean War
  325. 1951
    • Truman fires MacArthur
    • Rosenbergs convicted of treason
  326. 1952
    • US explodes first hydrogen bomb
    • Eisenhower defeats Stevenson for presidency
    • Ellison publishes The Invisible Man
  327. 1953
    • CIA engineered coup installs shah of Iran
    • Joseph Stalin dies
  328. 1954
    • French defeated at Dien Bien Phu in Vietnam
    • Army-McCarthy hearings
    • Brown v Board of education
    • SE Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) formed
    • Nasser becomes prime minister of Egypt
    • CIA sponsored coup in Guatemala
  329. 1955
    • Montgomery bus boycott by blacks begins; emergence of Martin Luther King Jr
    • Geneva summit meeting on Vietnam
    • USSR withdraws troops from Austria
    • Warsaw pact signed
    • AF of L merges with CIO
    • Tennessee Williams's Cat on a Hot Tin Roof first performed
  330. 1956
    • Soviets crush Hungarian revolt
    • Suez crisis
    • Eisenhower defeats Stevenson for presidency
    • Mills publishes The Power Elite
  331. 1957
    • Postwar peak of US birthrate
    • Little Rock school desegregation crisis
    • Civil Rights Act passed
    • Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) formed
    • Eisenhower Doctrine
    • USSR launches Sputnik
    • European Economic Community (EEC, Common Market) created by Treaty of Rome
  332. 1958-1959
    Berlin Crisis
  333. 1959
    • Castro seizes power in Cuba
    • Landrum-Griffan Act
    • Alaska and Hawaii attain statehood
  334. 1960
    • Sit-in movement for civil rights begins
    • U-2 incident sabotages Paris summit
    • OPEC formed
    • Kennedy defeats Nixon for presidency
  335. 1961
    • Berlin Wall built
    • Alliance for Progress
    • Bay of Pigs Invasion
    • Kennedy sends "military adviser" to S Vietnam
  336. 1962
    • Pressure from Kennedy results in rollback of steel prices
    • Trade Expansion Act
    • Laos neutralized
    • Cuban missile crisis
  337. 1963
    • France vetoes British membership in EEC
    • Anti-Diem coup in S Vietnam
    • Civil rights march in Washington DC
    • Kennedy assassination; Johnson assumes presidency
  338. 1964
    • 24th amendment (abolishing poll tax in federal elections) ratified
    • "Freedom Summer" voter registration in South
    • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
    • Johnson defeats Goldwater for presidency
    • War on Poverty begins
    • Civil Rights Act
  339. 1965
    • Great Society legislation
    • Voting Rights Act
    • US troops occupy Dominican Republic
  340. 1965-1968
    Race riots in US cities
  341. 1966
    France withdraws from NATO
  342. 1967
    Six day war between Israel and Egypt
  343. 1968
    • N Vietnam army launches Tet offensive in S Vietnam
    • Worldwide protests
    • Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert Kennedy assassinated
    • Prague spring crushed by USSR
    • Nixon defeats Humphrey and Wallace for presidency
    • My Lai Massacre
    • WITCH protests Miss America pageant in Altantic city, New Jersey
  344. 1970
    • Nixon orders invasion of Cambodia
    • Kent State and Jackson State incidents
    • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
    • Clean Air Actd
  345. 1971
    Pentagon papers published
  346. 1972
    • 26th amendment (lowering voting age to 18)
    • Nixon visits China and USSR
    • Shanghai Communique begins "normalization" of US-Chinese relations
    • ABM and SALT I treaties ratified
    • Nixon defeats McGovern for presidency
    • Equal Rights Amendment passes Congress (not ratified by states)
    • Title IX of Education Amendments passed
  347. 1973
    • US birthrate falls below replacement level
    • Treaty of Paris enacts cease fire in Vietnam and US withdraws
    • Agnew resigns; Ford appointed vice president
    • War powers act
    • Yom Kippur War
    • OPEC oil embargo
    • Endangered species act
    • Chilean president Salvado Alende killed in CIA backed coup
    • Frontiero v Richardson
    • Roe v Wade
  348. 1973-1974
    Watergate hearings and investigation
  349. 1974
    • Nixon resigns; Ford assumes presidency
    • OPEC ends embargo, increases oil prices
    • International Energy Agency formed
    • Milliken v Bradley
  350. 1975
    • Helsinki accords
    • South Vietnam falls to communists
  351. 1976
    Carter defeats Ford for presidency
  352. 1978
    • Camp David accords between Egypt and Israel
    • United States v Wheeler
  353. 1979
    • Iranian revolution and oil crisis
    • SALT II agreements signed (never ratified by Senate)
    • USSR Invades Afghanistan
  354. 1979-1981
    Iranian hostage crisis
  355. 1980
    • US boycotts Summer Olympics in Moscow
    • Reagan defeats Carter for presidency
  356. 1981
    • Iran releases American hostages
    • "reaganomics" spending and tax cuts passed
    • Solidarity movement in Poland
    • O'Conner appointed to Supreme Court (first woman justice)
  357. 1981-1991
    US aids anti-leftist forces in Central America
  358. 1982
    • Recession hits US economy
    • Israel invades Lebanon
  359. 1983
    • Reagan announces SDI plan (Star Wars)
    • US marines killed in Beirut, Lebanon
    • US Invasion of Grenada
  360. 1984
    • Reagan defeats Mondale for presidency
    • USSR boycotts Summer Olympics in LA
  361. 1985
    • Gorbachev comes to power in USSR, announces glasnost and perestroika
    • 1st Reagan-Gorbachev summit meeting in Geneva
  362. 1986
    • Reagan administration backs Aquino in Philippines
    • Iran-Contra affair revealed
    • 2nd Reagan-Gorbachev summit meeting in Reykjavik, Iceland
  363. 1987
    • Senate rejects Supreme Court nomination of Robert Bork
    • US naval escorts begin in Persian Gulf
    • Stock market plunges 508 points
    • 3rd Reagan-Gorbachev summit meeting in Washington DC, INF treaty signed
  364. 1988
    • 4th Reagan-Gorbachev summit meeting in Moscow
    • Bush defeats Dukakis for presidency
  365. 1989
    • Chinese gov. suppresses pro-democracy demonstrators in Tiananmen Square
    • Webster v. Reproductive Health Services
    • Eastern European countries oust communist gov.
    • Berlin Wall torn down
  366. 1990
    • Iraq invades Kuwait
    • E and W Germany unite
    • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
  367. 1991
    • Persian Gulf War
    • Thomas appointed to Supreme court
    • Gorbachev Survives coup attempt, resigns as Soviet president
    • USSR dissolves, republics form Commonwealth of Independent States
  368. 1992
    • 27th Amendment (Prohibiting Congressional pay raises from taking effect until an election seats a new session of Congress) ratified
    • Planned Parenthood v. Casey
    • Clinton defeats Bush and Perot for Presidency
  369. 1993
    NAFTA signed
  370. 1994
    Republicans win majorities in both houses of Congress
  371. 1996
    • Welfare Reform Bill becomes law
    • Clinton defeats Dole for presidency
  372. 1998
    • Clinton-Lewinsky scandal
    • US and Britain launch military strikes against Iraq
    • House of Representatives impeaches Clinton
  373. 1999
    • Senate acquits Clinton on impeachment charges
    • Kosovo crisis; NATO warfare with Serbia
    • Protest in Seattle against World Trade Organization
  374. 2000
    • "Million Mom March" against guns in Washington DC
    • US normalizes trade relations with China
    • George W Bush wins presidency in Electoral College; Albert Gore takes popular vote
  375. 2001
    • Terrorists attack NYC and Washington DC
    • US invades Afghanistan
    • Congress passes USA Patriot Act
    • Energy trader Enron collapses amid accounting scandals
  376. 2002
    • Congress passes No Child Left Behind Act
    • Bush labels Iraq, Iran and North Korea "Axis of evil"
    • Telecommunications giant WorldCom declares bankruptcy
    • Congress authorizes use of force against Iraq
    • UN Security Council demands that Iraq comply with weapons inspections
    • Republicans regain Senate
  377. 2003
    • N Korea withdraws form Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
    • US invades Iraq
    • Bush signs drug prescription bill for seniors
    • Saddam Hussein captured in Iraq
    • Supreme Court Narrowly approves affirmation action
  378. 2004
    • Gay marriage controversy erupts
    • Iraqi interim government installed
    • Bush defeats Kerry for presidency
  379. 2005
    Iraq elects permanent government but quickly descends into sectarian conflict
  380. 2006
    Saddam Hussein executed
  381. 2007
    US troop surge in Iraq
  382. 2008
    Barack Obama elected 44th president of the United States

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