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Parts of the Skeletal System
- 1. Bones
- 2. Joints
- 3. Cartilage
- 4. Ligaments
How many subdivision does the skeletal system have?
It has 2 subdivisions
What are the subdivisions of the skeletal system?
Functions of the bones.
- 1. Support
- 2. Protection
- 3. Movement
- 4. Storage (Calcium, Phosphorus, Fat)
- 5. Blood Cells (red bone marrow)
How many bones does the adult skeleton have?
It has 206 bones
What are the two types of bone tissue?
- 1. Compact Bone
- 2. Spongy Bone
- -Open Spaces
Describe long bones.
- -longer than they are wide
- -have a shaft with heads at both ends
- -composed mostly of compact bone
Describe short bones.
- -cube shaped
- -composed mostly of spongy bone
Describe flat bones.
- -thin, flattened, and usually curved
- -one layer of spongy bone sandwiched between two layers of compact bone
Describe irregular bones.
Bones that don't fit into the other bone categories
Diaphysis (long bone):
- Location: The shaft of the bone
- Type of bone: Compact bone
Epiphysis (long bone):
- Location: the ends of the long bone
- Type of bone: Spongy bone
Periosteum (long bone):
- Location: outer covering of bone
- Type of tissue: connective tissue
Articular Cartilage (long bone):
- Location: In the joints
- Type of tissue: Hyaline
- Function: Cushioning
Epiphyseal Plate (long bone):
A thin plate of cartilage where bone grows in children
Epiphyseal line (long bone):
The end of the cartilage from the epiphyseal plate, found in adults
Medullary Cavity (long bone):
- Location: the middle of the bone
- Type of marrow:
- -Red marrow (child)
- -Yellow marrow (adult)
Define Projections or Processes.
A place where muscle attaches
Define Depressions or Cavities.
A place that holds body organs
Define Foramens or canals.
A pathway for nerves and blood vessels
Formation of Human Skeleton
-In embryos most is made out of cartilage and some membranes with dense connective tissue
-During development bone starts to replace cartilage (ossified)
- Some cartilage remains
- Growth in length stops when Epiphyseal plate is gone
-Bones are remodeled by dissolving old bone and putting new bone in its place
-Blood calcium levels and gravitational effects affect bone remodeling
They make bone tissue
They destroy bone tissue
Are mature bone cells
- -A bone fracture that doesn't penetrate skin
- -Also know as a simple fracture
-A bone fracture that penetrates skin
-Also know as compound fracture
Stages of bone healing.
- 1. Blood filled swelling (hematoma) is formed
- 2. The fracture is splinted by a fibrocartilage callus
- 3. The fibrocartilage callus is replaced by bony callus
- 4. Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch
The Axial Skeleton consist of what?
- 1. Skull
- 2. Thoracic cage
- 3. Vertebral Column
The Appendicular Skeleton consist of what?
- 1. Upper and Lower Limbs or Appendages
- 2. Pectoral Girdle
- 3. Pelvic Girdle
- 1. Cranium
- 2. Facial Bones
- 2. Parietal
- 3. Temporal
- 4. Occipital
- 1. Maxilla
- 2. Mandible
- 3. Nasal
- 4. Zygomatic
- 5. Orbits
- -They're air filled cavities
- -Help lower skull weigh and amplify voive
The Hyoid Bone:
-Movable base for the tongue
-Aids in swallowing and speech
- Fontanels: fibrous membrane connecting the cranial bones
- -Allows the brain to grow
- -Helps during birthing process
- - Converts to bone within 24 months after birth