Ch.5

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Author:
HoseA30
ID:
271194
Filename:
Ch.5
Updated:
2014-04-22 04:58:39
Tags:
Anatomy Physiology AMY 10
Folders:
AMY-10
Description:
The Skeletal System
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  1. Parts of the Skeletal System
    • 1. Bones
    • 2. Joints
    • 3. Cartilage
    • 4. Ligaments
  2. How many subdivision does the skeletal system have?
    It has 2 subdivisions
  3. What are the subdivisions of the skeletal system?
    • 1. Axial
    • 2. Appendicular
  4. Functions of the bones.
    • 1. Support 
    • 2. Protection
    • 3. Movement
    • 4. Storage (Calcium, Phosphorus, Fat)
    • 5. Blood Cells (red bone marrow)
  5. How many bones does the adult skeleton have?
    It has 206 bones
  6. What are the two types of bone tissue?
    • 1. Compact Bone
    •     -Solid
    • 2. Spongy Bone
    •     -Open Spaces
  7. Describe long bones.
    • -longer than they are wide
    • -have a shaft with heads at both ends 
    • -composed mostly of compact bone
  8. Describe short bones.
    • -cube shaped
    • -composed mostly of spongy bone
  9. Describe flat bones.
    • -thin, flattened, and usually curved
    • -one layer of spongy bone sandwiched between two layers of compact bone
  10. Describe irregular bones.
    Bones that don't fit into the other bone categories
  11. Diaphysis (long bone):
    • Location: The shaft of the bone
    • Type of bone: Compact bone

  12. Epiphysis (long bone):
    • Location: the ends of the long bone
    • Type of bone: Spongy bone

  13. Periosteum (long bone):
    • Location: outer covering of bone
    • Type of tissue: connective tissue
  14. Articular Cartilage (long bone):
    • Location: In the joints
    • Type of tissue: Hyaline
    • Function: Cushioning 

  15. Epiphyseal Plate (long bone):
    A thin plate of cartilage where bone grows in children
  16. Epiphyseal line (long bone):
    The end of the cartilage from the epiphyseal plate, found in adults
  17. Medullary Cavity (long bone):
    • Location: the middle of the bone
    • Type of marrow:
    •     -Red marrow (child)
    •     -Yellow marrow (adult)
  18. Define Projections or Processes.
    A place where muscle attaches
  19. Define Depressions or Cavities.
    A place that holds body organs
  20. Define Foramens or canals.
    A pathway for nerves and blood vessels
  21. Formation of Human Skeleton
    -In embryos most is made out of cartilage and some membranes with dense connective tissue

    -During development bone starts to replace cartilage (ossified)

    - Some cartilage remains 

    - Growth in length stops when Epiphyseal plate is gone
  22. Bone Growth.
    -Bones are remodeled by dissolving old bone and putting new bone in its place

    -Blood calcium levels and gravitational effects affect bone remodeling
  23. Osteoblasts:
    They make bone tissue
  24. Osteoclasts:
    They destroy bone tissue
  25. Oteocytes:
    Are mature bone cells
  26. Closed Fracture:
    • -A bone fracture that doesn't penetrate skin
    • -Also know as a simple fracture
  27. Open Fracture:
    -A bone fracture that penetrates skin 

    -Also know as compound fracture
  28. Stages of bone healing.
    • 1. Blood filled swelling (hematoma) is formed 
    • 2. The fracture is splinted by a fibrocartilage callus
    • 3. The fibrocartilage callus is replaced by bony callus
    • 4. Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch

  29. The Axial Skeleton consist of what?
    • 1. Skull
    • 2. Thoracic cage
    • 3. Vertebral Column
  30. The Appendicular Skeleton consist of what?
    • 1. Upper and Lower Limbs or Appendages 
    • 2. Pectoral Girdle
    • 3. Pelvic Girdle
  31. Skull Bones:
    • 1. Cranium
    • 2. Facial Bones
  32. Cranium Bones:
    • 1.Frontal
    • 2. Parietal 
    • 3. Temporal
    • 4. Occipital
  33. Facial Bones:
    • 1. Maxilla 
    • 2. Mandible
    • 3. Nasal 
    • 4. Zygomatic
    • 5. Orbits
  34. Paranasal Sinuses:
    • -They're air filled cavities
    • -Help lower skull weigh and amplify voive
  35. The Hyoid Bone:
    -Movable base for the tongue

    -Aids in swallowing and speech
  36. Fetal Skull
    • Fontanels: fibrous membrane connecting the cranial bones
    •     -Allows the brain to grow
    •     -Helps during birthing process
    •     - Converts to bone within 24 months after birth

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