Immune System

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Immune System
2014-04-20 12:46:28

Microbiology: The Immune System- Method of Defense
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  1. Protection provided by several body systems
    Innate immunity
  2. Skin & mucous membranes
    Senor systems of bacterial secretions
    Cells that ingest & digest
    Innate immunity
  3. Defense that relies on molecular patterns associated with invading microbes
    Pattern recognition
  4. More specialized defense; develops throughout life & increase the host's ability to defend itself
    Adaptive (passive) immune response
  5. Learns & remembers the most effective response
    Adaptive (passive) immune response
  6. Foreign material
  7. The body's own cells
    Host cells/self cells
  8. Extracellular antigens
  9. Infected cells will be sacrificed as a means of destroying the invaders
    Intracellular antigens
  10. Immune response is inappropriately directed against the cells of one's own body (AIDS)
  11. Allergic reactions (pollen)
  12. The initial obstacle (skin, mucous membrane)
    1st line of defense
  13. Engulf & digest microbes
  14. Chemical messenger proteins  that send messages between cells of the immune system
  15. Plasma leaks into tissues; phagocytic cell exit the bloodstream & travel to the site of infection to destroy foreign materials
  16. Increased body temperature to discourage infection
  17. Formation & development of blood cells
  18. RBC- erythrocyte
    Carries oxygen
  19. WBC- neutrophil
    Phagocytizes & destroys foreign material
  20. WBC- basophil
    Allergic reactions & inflammation
  21. WBC- eosinophil
    Expels parasitic worms from the body
  22. WBC- leukocyte
    Defends the body
  23. Thrombocytes
    Platelets (cell fragments)- blood clotting
  24. Phagocytes are recruited to the sites of infection
  25. Use receptors to bind invading microbes
    Recognition & attachment
  26. Forms a membrane-bound vacuole called a phagosome
  27. Phagolysosome
    Fusion of phagosome with lysosome
  28. Enzymes degrade the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls
    Destruction & digestion
  29. Vesicle fuses with plasma membrane
  30. Occurs naturally in response to infections and exposure to antigens and artificially in response to vaccination
    Active immunity
  31. Occurs during pregnancy an through breast feeding
    Passive immunity
  32. Preparation of a disease-causing agent or its products used to induce active immunity; protects individuals and can provide herd immunity
  33. Weakened (alive) form of pathogens that can replicate but is generally unable to case disease (measles, mumps, yellow fever)
    Attenuated vaccine
  34. Killed or inactivated viruses; unable to replicate, but retains immunogenicity of the infectious agent; cannot revert to pathogenic form but requires booster shots (influenza, rabies, cholera)
    Inactivated vaccine
  35. Increase the intensity of the immune response to the antigen in a vaccine by providing danger signals or by absorbing and slowly releasing the antigen
  36. A patient's serum or plasma is tested to see if the patient has antibodies against specific infectious agents
    Obtaining antibodies
  37. The concentration of antibody molecules is determined by making serial dilutions; the last dilution that gives a testable antigen-antibody reaction shows the titer (concentration)
    Quantifying antigen-antibody reactions
  38. Create lines indicating a reaction of HCG antigen with antibodies
    Pregnancy indicators (ELISA test)
  39. Proteins that make up antigens are separated by size through gel electrophoresis; it is possible to determine exactly which protein the antibodies are recognizing
    HIV testing (Western Blot)