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-how were marriage, childhood, maternity, and work defined by hist context
-How did gender and social class interact to shape the lives ofworking-class women? Give examples from Lizzie Layton’s life
Her book looks at time from the mid 19-century until the early 20th century. She writes from the perspective of a working class women
Essentially, childhood didn't exist, it ended it after the age of 10 for most working class girls during this time. For example lizzie leyton and d her sister stayed home from school on washing days to help mind the children. Her sister went into service at the age of 12--taught to be domestic workers
women worked from their childhood until marriage(minding kids, servants) during marriage she began to turn away from the workplace but returned after her husband got sick(to support the home) once widowed became a midwife. (Life cycle of work).
- Gender & Social class played a huge role in wc women's life. They often did not have a childhood, and even though a huge emphasis was placed on motherhood was primarily responsible for home and bearing as well as work. She worked most of her life, although she had children she often found herself caring for others children,
- responsible for fam: went hungry because she needed to keep her fan fed.
were childhood, work, marriage, and maternity defined by the historical context?
-Gender & Social Class interaction
- The scope of her book takes place during the 19th century pretty much after the industrial rev. from the perspective of a middle class woman.
- childhood: The children were cared for mostly by servants. They were expected to obey and be taken care of. They weren't present during the social times of the fam. Vulnerable to diseases.
- Work: Women didn't work outside the home, they did play big role in household, served as networkers for their husbands, managed accounts, played an active role in econ. as consumers(allowance) benefited from rev.
- Book of household duties really detailed, it was viewed a job and duty of the wife to bestow upon her husband and children that the home is the happiest in the world.
Who was Emmeline Pankhurst, and how were her life and work related to the historical
context in which she lived? Describe her goals, her (changing) means of achieving these
goals, and her justification for her methods. How did social class influence her politics?
- Middle class woman/ fem during the late 19th century. Head of the WSPU during WWI(20th cent.) she lived in a time when women were actively trying to gain suffrage(the right to vote became the main focus).
- Gain the right to vote for women, better marriage laws, protection for prostitution
- tried to attain by being constitutional & law abiding(didn't work)-> militant(Violence) and constitutional
- because all other means didn't work--was how men gained rights.
- Class: Went on hunger strikes in jail, often released soon because they were middle class, didn't really focus in working condt.
Who was Alexandra Kollontai, and how was her life and work related to the historical context
in which she lived? Describe her goals, her means of achieving these goals, and her
justification for her methods. How did social class influence her politics?
- She was working class social feminist. (proletariat v bourgouise) women don't understand where the working class stands.
- She was exiled and lest russia because of a disagreement with her parents about the man she would marry.
- Her goal is for working class women to achieve equality(economically and familial structure-oppressing) yet posed the heavy ideal the bourg. women did not understand and could not join the wc. They were only interested in helping women of their own class.
- Once bourg. women gained rights, wc women would not have it. CLASS IS IMPORTANT!--elimination is necessary for equal rights.
In relation to the First World War, why are both of the following claims justifiable, depending
on the evidence one selects? "Women opposed war," and "women were patriots." Be sure to
place both the war and the gender issues in historical context. Give examples. What
conclusions can one draw about gender and war from this context?
- WWI Context: After nation states--paranoid, European Imperialism in africa, in roads in china and the issue of nationalism (1914-1919)--all caused antagonism. Great depression
- gender issue: pro natalism
- split women's movements
- opposed war:urged women to reject weapon producing(bankruptcy). Opposite of what was wanted. expenses=female pov. (women will experience more pov and malnourishment)
- saw war as disastrous
- Supported: thought war was inevitable, so they might as well support w/ hopes of gaining suffrage. opportunities as nurses(middle class). We must support our country working class->families.
What new opportunities did women experience during the period between the two World
Wars, and how did they otherwise gain new roles in the public sphere? What old and/or new
restrictions did women experience during this period?
opp: German women gained the right to vote, Nursing, typewriting, they were able to get out more, more jobs and Indep-political citizenship
Restr: women were still oppressed in the workplace paid wayyy less even though they worked in the workplace during war. 'war machine' medals for motherhood, legal penalty for abortion
Why was the historical context important in interpreting the 1931 campaign against Paragraph 218 in the Weimar Republic? What groups in society supported the campaign, and why? Who opposed it, and why? Were there political parties or groups that were ambivalent about thecampaign, and if so, who were they? What was the outcome of the campaign?
Historical context: The Great Depression(economic concerns). the growth of extremist parties such as the communists and Nazi, rising unemp.(Even though this was put into place decades prior it became a concern nw.
Supported campaign: Working, communists, some doctors & healthcare-concerned with making forced to reproduce and cannot provide with them, and concern for humanity
against: Church(pope condemned it) Gov leaders and politicians( enforce the law, need women to make soldiers, afrid of comm.
ambiv./: Middle class economic concerns yet afraid of comm, social dem. (wanted to uphold weimer rep by advocating for rep. rights .(lessened penalties) yet wanted to maintain loyalty to church.
campaign failed stayed in place until the end of WWII
What was the position of authoritarian governments (Italy under Mussolini and Germany
under Hitler) toward women? Why and how did women in many cases support Fascist and
Nazi governments? In what ways were race and nationhood connected to gender in Fascist
and/or Nazi ideologies?
- they were very outspoken about gender issues and declared that women should not be involved in the public sphere, yet they formed and supporter some women orgs.(not germany)
- women supported because: they thought they could gain rights and community status and adopted the status quo because they realized the fascist would stay in power,earliest supporters of NAzi because of the promise to make germany strong.--families would have been endangered.
Gender & race: center of nazi domestic policy --couples were given tax benefits, abortion was illegal. Worked played as producers of 'araryan babies and often as office workers during the holocaust.
In relation to WWII, why are both of the following phrases rooted in truth:"women were patriots"; “women were victims in gender-specific ways”? In discussing this war,
be sure to place it in historical context. What conclusions can one draw about gender and war from this context?
- Historical Context:1939-1945 after Weimar Republic Great Depression
- women as patriots: Able to work many jobs in war. Rosie the Riveter, carried mail, faked being midwives to deliver supplies, gov had them register for essential labor(cooking)
- Women were victims: forced reg for labor in britan, Had to body and sex, take care of children and work, erased completely from history. Executed and held as POW
In what historical context did “the welfare state” exist, and what were its goals? What was new about the concept of the “welfare state”? According to Jane Jenson, did the Welfare State achieve in terms of citizenship for women? Which of its goals did it fail to achieve with regard to women’s equality of opportunity, political rights, and social and reproductive rights?
- Hist context: Established in West Germany during the mid 20th century after the split between east and west Germany seen as creating a gov for the ppl by the ppl (after the fall of authoritarian gov) that anti-democratic values, hierarchy, and a strong militaristic presence through a dictatorship. What is now referred to as a Fascist government brought terror, ethnic hatred, repression, war, economic hard times, and imposed social coercion on the people during the war times.
- Goals: ‘full citizenship,’ economic ind., and reproductive rights.
- did not achieve full citizenship- only made them more opp. and dep. on men had to get benefits through husbands
- opp:put pay equality into const. but did not stick by it ‘traditions and norms’
- social: could not impose nationality on children or make decisions, couldn’t make foreign husbands citizens if foreign etc.
- reproductive rights: made legal in some states once Germany united---became illegal
In what historical context did “state socialism” exist, and what were its goals ? What political
means did governments use to attempt to achieve equality? With what success? What
did they achieve in terms of “right to work ” and “reproductive rights” ? How has women’s status changed in Eastern Europe after 1989?
- -Hist context: btwn. 1945-1989 east central eur. states were ruled by socialist regimes after 1989 they had a ‘democratic’ cap gov. during the split of Germany
- - goals were to achieve equality through putting into the const. introduced the law on protection of mothers and children, women should be included in legislature. did not succeed because of existing gender values and tradition
- -‘right to work’ recog. in order to gain equality women needed econ. indep. from men. women need to work ( only essentially, because everyone was needed to work)-- didn’t wrk.
- -reprod. rights: equality of marriage partners, reproductive options was an option as in the east.
- after 1989:changed to ‘democratic’ -dropped female from legislation, removed policies on gender eq.--women experienced Unemp.
- -traditionalist expectations of women become stronger,‘bear babies for nation’ lost reproductive freedom when Germany was reunited.
- people that share culture should form a nation state( voting rights)
- caused lots of fear during the 19 and 20th centuries
includes those who believed, like Kollontai and the German SPD that orderly, gradual change would never help the working class and women. They believed only a revolution would bring equality.They believed that wealth meant power, and the only way to change the exploitation of the workers and women was through revolution. (The SPD in Germany is a variation on that, because they decided after the First World War to try to work for change "within the parliamentary system." This is the reason you saw them unable to agree totally with the communists on paragraph 218. They were trying to uphold the constitution of the Weimar republic.
Liberals were happy with the industrial revolution and believed they were living in an age of progress. Liberalism is the name used in the nineteenth century for those who believed in Enlightenment values. But also businessmen, industrialists, and those who were getting wealthy from the industrial revolution. John Stuart Mill is a model of liberalism, but he went much further than most who called themselves liberals, for example, wanting gender equality. The bourgeois feminists were liberals. They wanted change, greater equality, but not revolution (even though the WSPU used militant tactics). Liberals basically wanted orderly change, through changing the law.
is associated with both the church, especially the Catholic church and population, and it is opposed to the modernizing changes of the nineteenth and twentieth century--nation state, civil society, democracy, industrial capitalism. Also the old aristocracy might have joined conservatives.
Women's Cooperative Guild
- A coop-formed(by working class) to help improve the status of women through edu.
- women could own 'property'
- maternity benefits & infant welfare
- started off as stores--workers owned thier own businesses(Men and Women)
Women's social and political union (WSPU)
- Founded by Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters(Sylvia & Christabel) in 1903 to stage more militant demonstrations
- attacks on private prop. to publicize their cause
- staged hunger strikes.
Social Democratic Party
- consisted of working class voters: Alexandra Kollantai, Marxist, social and cultural rev.
- participated in gov
- gender like class determines status
- bourg. vs proletariat.
Really believed in a revolution, didn't participate in government. Very strong prescence supported the campaign against abortion
war baby machine---reproduce for your country
- dictatorship that was opposed to dem. gov
- hierarchical, militeristic
- promised to restore strngth of country (NAZI)
- 'love & support your country'
Women’s International League of
Peace and Freedom (WILPF)
- Formed in 1915 by women during WWI. Women and people can acheive equality through peace
- wanted disarment