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Sieve
 381000 mcm
 ED: sieve pore diameter (varies with particle shape, especially elongated shape)
 Average diameter: weight average diameter
 Function: pass particals through sieves

Optical Microscope
 11000 mcm
 ED: dp (projected perimeter diamter) or da(projected area diameter)
AD: Number average diamter and weight average diameter (dn, dw)
Function: look at particles through microscope and measure them

Electron Microscope
0.011000 mcm
ED: dp (projected perimeter diamter) or da(projected area diameter)
AD: Number average diamter and weight average diameter (dn, dw)
Function: look at particles through microscope and measure them

Gravitational Sedimentation method and centrifugal method
 Gravitational sedimentation 101000 mcm
 Centrifugal 0.11000 mcm
 ED: stokes diamater= dstĀ
 AD: weight average diameter= dw
sedimentation methods:measure how quickly particle sediments, as this is proportional to particle size
note that the centrifugal method is the equation with angular velocity and the natural logarithm (w, and ln)

Laser light diffraction
 11000 mcm
 analyzes dry or wet samples by shining a light on them and measuring diffraction, the larger the particle the narrower the angle of scattering and the higher the intensity
 ED: area diameter, darea
 AD: volume/weight/number average diameter= dv, dw, da
all of the AD are calculated from the ED

Dynamic laser light scattering
 0.01 2 mcm
 ED: area diamater, darea
 AD: dw, dv, dn (weight volume number)
Function: measures scattering using the principal of Brownian motion of small particles (smaller or comparable to laser light)
Use Stokeeinstein equation , find it as D=kT*10^7/ (3*pi*viscosity*dh)
note that dn is the hydrodynamic diameter

Coulter Counter
 0.11000 mcm
 usually requires insoluble particles
 ED: volume diameter (regardless of shapeonly one that doesn't assume spherical particles)
 AD: volume average diameter, dv
look at tutorial 6 for more detailed explanation

Cascade inspectors
 <10mcm
 for analyzing aerosols or drug powders
 ED: aerodynamic diameter= da
Can determine MMAD and GSD (mean mass aerodynamic diameter, geometric standard deviation)

