Card Set Information
The % of red blood cells in a blood sample
white blood cell
A mixture of water, amino acids, proteins, carbs, lipids, vits, hormone, electrolytes, cellular waste.
White blood cells and platelets
packed cell volume
Blood cells originate in red bone marrow from
hemocytoblasts or hemopoietic stem cells.
the production of megakaryocytes which come apart& become platelets.
Colony-stimulating factors (CSF) are
growth factors that stimulate stem cells to produce certain cell types.
the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity.
The biconcave shape of red blood cells allow them to
have an increased surface area for the transport of gases.
oxygen carrying protein in red blood cells and is responsible for the color of blood.
Each red blood cell is about
one-third hemoglobin by volume.
Phagocytize old blood cells and play a role in immunity.
A red blood cell count is
the number of RBCs in one mm3(microliter) of blood.
red blood cell production.
immature red blood cells that still contain endoplasmic reticulum.
Erythropoietin (EPO) controls
red blood cell production and is released primarily from the kidneys.
Erythropoietin is released and red blood cell production increases when
the availability of oxygen decreases.
Two vitamins needed for red blood cell
vitamin B12 and folic acid.
Two B-complex vitamins are needed for
Intrinsic factor is needed for
absorption of vitamin B12.
Iron is required for
a reduction in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
CAused by toxins, radiation and causes damaged bone marrow.
Caused by toxic chemicals and destroys RBC.
Iron deficiency anemia
Caused by dietary lack of iron and causes hemoglobin deficiency.
Sickle cell anemia
Caused by defective genes and causes an abnormal RBC shape.
Caused by an inability to absorb vit B12 & causes an excess of immature cells.
Caused by a defective gene and causes hemoglobin deficiency and short-lived RBC.
Heme decomposes into
iron and biliverdin.
Biliverdin is converted to
Bilirubin & excreted in bile.
White blood cells are also called
White blood cells function to protect against
Granulocytes are leukocytes that have
granules in their cytoplasm whereas agranulocytes lack cytoplasmic granules.
neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils.
NEUTROPHILS are granulocytes that
Granules appear light purple in an acid/base stain.
Have nuclei that are lobed.
Phagocytize bacteria, fungi, and some viruses. Account for about 54%-62% of white blood cells
EOSINOPHILS are granuloytes that
Granules stain red in an acid stain.
Nucleus is usually bilobed.
Moderate allergic reactions and defend against parasitic worm infestations.
Make up 1%-3% of the total number of WBCs.
BASOPHILS are Granulocytes that
Granules stain blue in a basic stain.
Migrate to damaged tissues where they release
Histamine which promotes inflammation. Heparin which functions to prevent blood clots.
Account for less than 1% of leukocytes.
monocytes and lymphocytes.
MONOCYTES are Agranulocytes that
The largest of the blood cells
The nuclei are spherical, kidney shaped or oval.
Can leave the blood stream to become macrophages
Make up 3%-9% of white blood cells in a blood sample.
Blood transports white blood cells to ______ ; WBCs may then leave _____.
site of infection; the bloodstream
LYMPHOCYTES are Agranulocytes that
-Large, spherical nucleus surrounded by thin rim of cytoplasm.
-The major types are T cells and B cells.
-T cells attack microorganisms, tumor cells, and transplanted cells.
-B cells produce antibodies.
-Account for about 25%-33% of the circulating white blood cells.
Two hormones that stimulate white blood cell production are
interleukins and CSFs(colony stimulating factors).
A white blood cell count is normally between
5,000-10,000 cells per mm3 of blood.
increased WBC count caused by acute infections.
Leukopenia is a
a decreased WBC count and is often caused by influenza, mumps, measles, chicken pox, or AIDS.
A differential white blood cell count lists percentages of
the types of leukocytes in a blood sample.
The number of neutrophils ________ during bacterial infections.
Eosinophils ________ during parasitic worm infections or allergic reactions.
Platelets are also called
Platelets arise from cells called
A normal platelet count is
between 130,000-360,000 platelets per mm3 of blood.
Platelets release serotonin that
contracts smooth muscles in the vessels walls, reducing blood flow.
Platelets help repair damaged blood vessels by
by sticking to broken surfaces.
The three main plasma protein groups are
albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen.
smallest of the plasma proteins and are synthesized in the liver.
Albumins function to help maintain
colloid osmotic pressure of blood.
Colloid pressure is
osmotic pressure produced by plasma proteins.
Globulins are a plasma protein that can be divided into the following three groups:
alpha, beta, and gamma globulins.
Alpha and beta globulins are synthesized in the liver and function to transport
lipids and fat-soluble vitamins in the blood.
Gamma globulins are synthesized in lymphatic tissues and function as
a type of antibody.
Fibrinogen is synthesized in the liver and functions to
promote blood clotting.
3 major blood components and relative amounts:
Hematocrit/packed cell volume-RBC (45%), plasma(55%), buffy coat-WBC&platelets (1%)
Hemostasis refers to
the stoppage of bleeding.
Three actions that may prevent blood loss are
vessel spasm, platelet plug formation, and blood coagulation.
A platelet plug is formed when platelets contact
the formation of a blood clot.
The extrinsic clotting mechanism is triggered by
chemicals from broken blood vessels or damaged tissues.
The intrinsic clotting mechanism is triggered by
the contact of blood with foreign surfaces in
the absence of tissue damage.
Clotting factors are
chemicals that control blood clotting.
Vitamin K is necessary for
some clotting factors to function.
blood clotting and anticoagulants inhibit blood clotting.
Normally, anticoagulants _________ & the blood ____.
prevail, does not clot
The major event in blood clot formation is
conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin.
inhibits the adherence of platelets to the inner surface of healthy blood vessel walls.
Heparin is a
The function of thrombin is to convert
fibrinogen to fibrin.
Fibrin threads dissolve clot formation by
Absorbing plasminogen which becomes plasmin which digests blood clots.
Prothrombin activator converts _______ to______ in prescence of ______ .
prothrombin to thrombin; calcium
What is the negative feedback factor in the thrombic system?
What factor stablizes fibrin threads?
Once fibrin threads form, they stick to
exposed surfaces of damaged blood vessels, creating a blood clot.
plasma minus clotting factors.
Plasmin functions to
Break down blood clots.
A thrombus is
an abnormal blood clot in a vessel.
An embolus is
thrombus or portion of a thrombus that is moving in the blood stream.
An embolus that lodges and blocks blood flow.
clumping of RBCs and is due to a reaction between RBC surface molecules called
antigens and proteins called antibodies.
The ABO blood group is based on the presence or
antigen A and antigen B on RBC membranes.
Type O blood is the universal donor because it
antigens A and B, so this blood type can be
given to persons of all other blood types.
A person with type AB blood is called a
universal recipient because
type AB lacks both anti-A and anti-B antibodies, so a person with this blood type can receive blood from any other blood type.
A person with type O blood has
both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.
The major concern in blood transfusion
procedures is that
the cells in the donated blood not clump due to antibodies present in the recipient’s plasma.
Platelets are part of____ and a preplatelet is a ____.