Blood

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RUTHCALLAWAY
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271239
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Blood
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2014-04-28 21:55:52
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Blood
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  1. The % of red blood cells in a blood sample
    Hematocrit
  2. leuko
    white blood cell
  3. Plasma
    A mixture of water, amino acids, proteins, carbs, lipids, vits, hormone, electrolytes, cellular waste.
  4. Buffy coat
    White blood cells and platelets
  5. packed cell volume
    hematocrit
  6. Blood cells originate in red bone marrow from
    hemocytoblasts or hemopoietic stem cells.
  7. Thrombopoietin (TPO)stimulates
    the production of megakaryocytes which come apart& become platelets.
  8. Colony-stimulating factors (CSF) are
    growth factors that stimulate stem cells to produce certain cell types.
  9. Erythrocytes(RBC) reflect
    the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity.
  10. The biconcave shape of red blood cells allow them to
    have an increased surface area for the transport of gases.
  11. Hemoglobin is
    oxygen carrying protein in red blood cells and is responsible for the color of blood.
  12. Each red blood cell is about
    one-third hemoglobin by volume.
  13. Macrophages
    Phagocytize old blood cells and play a role in immunity.
  14. A red blood cell count is
    the number of RBCs in one mm3(microliter) of blood.
  15. Erythropoiesis is
    red blood cell production.
  16. Reticulocytes are
    immature red blood cells that still contain endoplasmic reticulum.
  17. Erythropoietin (EPO) controls
    red blood cell production and is released primarily from the kidneys.
  18. Erythropoietin is released and red blood cell production increases when
    the availability of oxygen decreases.
  19. Two vitamins needed for red blood cell
    vitamin B12 and folic acid.
  20. Two B-complex vitamins are needed for
    DNA synthesis.
  21. Intrinsic factor is needed for
    absorption of vitamin B12.
  22. Iron is required for
    hemoglobin production.
  23. Anemia is
    a reduction in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
  24. Aplastic anemia
    CAused by toxins, radiation and causes damaged bone marrow.
  25. Hemolytic anemia
    Caused by toxic chemicals and destroys RBC.
  26. Iron deficiency anemia
    Caused by dietary lack of iron and causes hemoglobin deficiency.
  27. Sickle cell anemia
    Caused by defective genes and causes an abnormal RBC shape.
  28. Pernicious anemia
    Caused by an inability to absorb vit B12 & causes an excess of immature cells.
  29. Thallassemia
    Caused by a defective gene and causes hemoglobin deficiency and short-lived RBC.
  30. Heme decomposes into
    iron and biliverdin.
  31. Biliverdin is converted to
    Bilirubin & excreted in bile.
  32. White blood cells are also called
    leukocytes.
  33. White blood cells function to protect against
    diseases.
  34. Granulocytes are leukocytes that have
    granules in their cytoplasm whereas agranulocytes lack cytoplasmic granules.
  35. Granulocytes include
    neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils.
  36. NEUTROPHILS are granulocytes that
    • Granules appear light purple in an acid/base stain.
    • Have nuclei that are lobed.
    • Phagocytize bacteria, fungi, and some viruses. Account for about 54%-62% of white blood cells
  37. EOSINOPHILS are granuloytes that
    • Granules stain red in an acid stain.
    • Nucleus is usually bilobed.
    • Moderate allergic reactions and defend against        parasitic worm infestations.
    • Make up 1%-3% of the total number of WBCs.
  38. BASOPHILS are Granulocytes that
    •  Granules stain blue in a basic stain.
    •  Migrate to damaged tissues where they release:    
    •          Histamine which promotes inflammation.          Heparin which functions to prevent                     blood clots.
    • Account for less than 1% of leukocytes.
  39. AGRANULOCTYES are
    monocytes and lymphocytes.
  40. MONOCYTES are Agranulocytes that
    • The largest of the blood cells
    • The nuclei are spherical, kidney shaped or oval.
    • Can leave the blood stream to become                 macrophages
    • Make up 3%-9% of white blood cells in a blood sample.
  41. Blood transports white blood cells to ______ ; WBCs may then leave _____.
    site of infection; the bloodstream
  42. LYMPHOCYTES are Agranulocytes that
    • -smallest
    • -Provide immunity.
    • -Large, spherical nucleus surrounded by thin rim   of cytoplasm.
    • -The major types are T cells and B cells.
    •         -T cells attack microorganisms, tumor cells,         and transplanted cells.
    •         -B cells produce antibodies.
    • -Account for about 25%-33% of the circulating    white blood cells.
  43. Two hormones that stimulate white blood cell production are
    interleukins and CSFs(colony stimulating factors).
  44. A white blood cell count is normally between
    5,000-10,000 cells per mm3 of blood.
  45. Leukocytosis is
    increased WBC count caused by acute infections.
  46. Leukopenia is a
    a decreased WBC count and is often caused by influenza, mumps, measles, chicken pox, or AIDS.
  47. A differential white blood cell count lists percentages of
    the types of leukocytes in a blood sample.
  48. The number of neutrophils  ________ during bacterial infections.
    increases
  49. Eosinophils ________ during parasitic worm infections or allergic reactions.
    Increase
  50. Platelets are also called
    thrombocytes.
  51. Platelets arise from cells called
    megakaryocytes.
  52. A normal platelet count is
    between 130,000-360,000 platelets per mm3 of blood.
  53. Platelets release serotonin that
    contracts smooth muscles in the vessels walls, reducing blood flow.
  54. Platelets help repair damaged blood vessels by
    by sticking to broken surfaces.
  55. The three main plasma protein groups are
    albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen.
  56. Albumins are
    smallest of the plasma proteins and are synthesized in the liver.
  57. Albumins function to help maintain
    colloid osmotic pressure of blood.
  58. Colloid pressure is
    osmotic pressure produced by plasma proteins.
  59. Globulins are a plasma protein that can be divided into the following three groups:
    alpha, beta, and gamma globulins.
  60. Alpha and beta globulins are synthesized in the liver and function to transport
    lipids and fat-soluble vitamins in the blood.
  61. Gamma globulins are synthesized in lymphatic tissues and function as
    a type of antibody.
  62. Fibrinogen is synthesized in the liver and functions to
    promote blood clotting.
  63. 3 major blood components and relative amounts:
    Hematocrit/packed cell volume-RBC (45%), plasma(55%), buffy coat-WBC&platelets (1%)
  64. Hemostasis refers to
    the stoppage of bleeding.
  65. Three actions that may prevent blood loss are
    vessel spasm, platelet plug formation, and blood coagulation.
  66. A platelet plug is formed when platelets contact
    collagen.
  67. Coagulation causes
    the formation of a blood clot.
  68. The extrinsic clotting mechanism is triggered by
    chemicals from broken blood vessels or damaged tissues.
  69. The intrinsic clotting mechanism is triggered by
    • the contact of blood with foreign surfaces in
    • the absence of tissue damage.
  70. Clotting factors are
    chemicals that control blood clotting.
  71. Vitamin K is necessary for
    some clotting factors to function.
  72. Procoagulants promote
    blood clotting and anticoagulants inhibit blood clotting.
  73. Normally, anticoagulants _________ & the blood ____.
    prevail, does not clot
  74. The major event in blood clot formation is
    conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin.
  75. Prostacyclin
    inhibits the adherence of platelets to the inner surface of healthy blood vessel walls.
  76. Antithrombin
    inactivates thrombin.
  77. Heparin is a
    anticoagulant.
  78. The function of thrombin is to convert
    fibrinogen to fibrin.
  79. Fibrin threads dissolve clot formation by
    Absorbing plasminogen which becomes plasmin which digests blood clots.
  80. Prothrombin activator converts _______ to______ in prescence of ______ .
    prothrombin to thrombin; calcium
  81. What is the negative feedback factor in the thrombic system?
    antithrombin
  82. What factor stablizes fibrin threads?
    Factor XIII
  83. Once fibrin threads form, they stick to
    exposed surfaces of damaged blood vessels, creating a blood clot.
  84. Serum is
    plasma minus clotting factors.
  85. Plasmin functions to
    Break down blood clots.
  86. A thrombus is
    an abnormal blood clot in a vessel.
  87. An embolus is
    thrombus or portion of a thrombus that is moving in the blood stream.
  88. Embolism
    An embolus that lodges and blocks blood flow.
  89. Agglutination is
    • clumping of RBCs and is due to a reaction between RBC surface molecules called
    • antigens and proteins called antibodies.
  90. The ABO blood group is based on the presence or
    absence of
    antigen A and antigen B on RBC membranes.
  91. Type O blood is the universal donor because it
    lacks
    • antigens A and B, so this blood type can be
    • given to persons of all other blood types.
  92. A person with type AB blood is called a
    universal recipient because
    type AB lacks both anti-A and anti-B antibodies, so a person with this blood type can receive blood from any other blood type.
  93. A person with type O blood has
    both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.
  94. The major concern in blood transfusion
    procedures is that
    the cells in the donated blood not clump due to antibodies present in the recipient’s plasma.
  95. Platelets are part of____ and a preplatelet is a ____.
    WBC; megakaryocyte

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